JF Ptak Science Books Post 2529 Reference Tools series

C.B. Tompkins' *High-Speed Computing Devices *(New York, McGraw Hill, 1950) is probably the best of the pre-1960 textbooks on the computer, complete with stout bibliographies and lots of bits to trail from the golden age of computers. This classic work is enhanced by a (very) unusually complete series of chapter-ending references and bibliographies. Among much else of interest we find a treatment of the Harvard Mark I and II on pp 183-187 in the chapter on "Large-Scale Digital Computing Systems" on pp 182-222 with bibliography occupying pp 218-222. Also, the "Punched-Card Computing Systems" chapter pp 146-181 has a very nice bibliography on pp 166-181.

Even though I've used this book quite a bit I've never collected the chapter-ending references in one document until today. Tompkins now appears in the glorious **Internet Archive**, and I've taken the 16 pieces of bibliography and gathered them all below in a document that is about 40 pages long. Have a look, and enjoy--thanks to the Internet Archive!

- This is considered to be the first textbook on digital computers, the first compendium in English on digital computer technology, and a pioneering work that influenced many computer designers during the 1950s. It provides an unsurpassed picture of the state of the art during the late 1940s, and is further enhanced by the inclusion of several excellent bibliographies. -- Sarrazin F2.
- "The book is a careful analysis of the electronic field as of 1950 and was in very large measure written by the late Professor C. B. Tompkins.." - Goldstine 315.
- (This book) was written to satisfy "a perceived need, following the end of WW II, for compendium of technologies applicable to the emerging field of electronic digital computers...Because published technical information was scarce in the U.S., there can be little question that the book was an important contribution to computer literature...with its state of the art picture of the period 1947 through 1949, establishes a well-documented baseline fro tracking and evaluating subsequent technological progress."-- Arnold Cohen, from the Introduction to the 1983 Charles Babbage Institute Reprint Series Edition of the ERA Report, published by Tomash Publshing. ERA

** High-Speed Computing Devices, by C.B. Tompkins: bibliographies**

# Source: Internet Archive https://archive.org/stream/highspeedcomputi00era/highspeedcomputi00era_djvu.txt

Chapter 1. Introduction Chapter 2. Preliminary Considerations Chapter 3. Counters as Elementary Components Chapter 4. Switches and Gates Chapter 5. A Functional Approach to Machine Design Chapter 6. Arithmetic Systems Chapter 7. Numerical Analysis Chapter 8. Desk Calculators Chapter 9. Punched-card Computing Systems Chapter 10. Large-scale Digital Computing Systems Chapter 11. Analog Computing Systems Chapter 12. The Form of a Digital Computer Chapter 13. Arithmetic Elements Chapter 14. Transfer Mediums Chapter 15. Data-conversion Equipment Chapter 16. Special Techniques and Equipment

# Chapter 1 Introduction

1. Berkeley, E. C, Giant Brains (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1949). 2. Hartree, D. R., Calculating Instruments and Machines (University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 111., 1949). 3. Wiener, Norbert, Cybernetics (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1948).

**Chapter 2 ****Preliminary Considerations (no references)**

# Chapter 3 THE BASIC ELEMENTS OF MACHINE COMPUTATION

1. Aiken, H. H., and G. M. Hopper, The Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator — I, Electrical Engineering, Vol. 65, Nos. 8 and 9, pp. 384-391 (August-September, 1946); The Automatic Sequence Controlled Calcu- lator— II, ibid., No. 10, pp. 449-454 (October, 1946); The Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator — III, ibid., No. 11, pp. 522-528 (Novem- ber, 1946). 2. Alfven, H., A Simple Scale-of-Two Counter, Proceedings of the Physical Society (London), Vol. 50, pp. 358-359 (May, 1938). 3. Blair, J. M., An Improved Current Integrator, Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 14, pp. 64-67 (March, 1943). 4. Blume, Richard J., Predetermined Counter for Process Control, Elec- tronics, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 88-93 (February, 1948). 5. Brunetti, Cledo, and R. W. Curtis, Printed Circuit Techniques, Pro- ceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers, Vol. 36, pp. 121-161 (Jan- uary, 1948). 6. Burks, A. W., Electronic Computing Circuits of the ENIAC, Proceed- ings of the Institute of Radio Engineers, Vol. 35, pp. 756-767 (August, 1947). 7. Compton, J. S., U.S. Patent 2,402,372; filed Nov. 5, 1942; issued Sept. 10, 1946. 8. Couffignal, P. L., U.S. Patent 2,318,591; filed March 26, 1937; issued May 11, 1943. 9. Crawford, Perry, Jr., unpublished thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1939). 10. Desch, J. R., U.S. Patent 2,404,697; filed March 21, 1942; issued July 23, 1946. 11. Eccles, W. H., and F. W. Jordan, A Trigger Relay, Radio Review, Vol. 1, pp. 143-146 (October, 1919). 12. Grosdorf, I. E., Electronic Counters, RCA Review, Vol. VIII, pp. 438- 447 (September, 1946). 13. Harvard University, Staff of the Computation Laboratory, A Manual of Operation for the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, Annals of the Computation Laboratory of Harvard University, Vol. I (Harvard Univer- sity Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1946). 14. International Business Machines Corporation, IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator. Pamphlet published by the International Business Machines Corporation (1945). 15. Lewis, W. B., Electrical Counting (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1942), Chap. VIII. 16. Lifschutz, H., and J. L. Lawson, Triode Valve Scale-of-Two Circuit, Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 9, pp. 83-89 (March, 1938). 17. Lifschutz, H., A Complete Geiger-Miiller Counting System, Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 10, pp. 21-26 (January, 1939). 18. Lifschutz, H., New Vacuum Tube Scaling Circuits of Arbitrary Integral or Fractional Scaling Ratio, Physical Review, Vol. 57, pp. 243-244 (1940). 19. Michael, F. R., Tube Failures in ENIAC, Electronics, Vol. 20, No. 10, pp. 116-119 (October, 1947). 20. Miller, O. R., U.S. Patent 2,407,320; filed Nov. 5, 1942; issued Sept. 10, 1946. 21. Neher, H. V., High Speed Mechanical Recorder, Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 10, pp. 29-31 (1939). 22. Overbeck, W. P., U.S. Patent 2,404,918; filed May 1, 1940; issued July 30, 1946. 23. Overbeck, W. P., U.S. Patent 2,470,716; filed June 11, 1943; issued May 17, 1949. 24. Phelps, B. E., Dual-Triode Trigger Circuits, Electronics, Vol. 18, No. 7, pp. 110-113 (July, 1945). 25. Potter Instrument Company, Flushing, N. Y., Decade Scaler, Model 2092. 26. Potter, J. T., A Four-Tube Counter Decade, Electronics, Vol. 17, No. 6, pp. 110-113, 358, 360 (June, 1944). 27. Radio Corporation of America, Camden, N.J., Time Interval Counter, Type WF-99B. 28. Regener, V. H., Design and Use of Directly Coupled Pentode Trigger Pairs, Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 17, pp. 180-184 (May, 1946). 29. Regener, V. H., Decade Counting Circuits, Review of Scientific Instru- ments, Vol. 17, pp. 185-189 (May, 1946). 30. Regener, V. H., Reversible Decade Counting Circuit, Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 17, pp. 375-376 (October, 1946). 31. Reich, H. J., Trigger Circuits, Electronics, Vol. 12, No. 8, pp. 14-17 (August, 1939). 32. Reich, H. J., Electronic Switch for Simultaneous Observation of 2 Waves with the Cathode-ray Oscilloscope, Review of Scientific Instru- ments, Vol. 12, pp. 191-192 (April, 1941). 33. Seren, Leo, Decade-Ring Scaling Circuit, Review of Scientific Instru- ments, Vol. 18, pp. 654-659 (September, 1947). 34. Sharpless, T. K., High Speed N-Scale Counters, Electronics, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 122-125 (March, 1948). 35. Shea, H. G., Electronic True Decade Counters, Electronic Industries, pp. 82-84, 136 (Sept. 1946). 36. Shepherd, W. G., and R. O. Haxby, Scale of Eight Impulse Counters, Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 7, pp. 425-426 (1936). 37. Stevenson, E. C, and I. A. Getting, A Vacuum Tube Circuit for Scaling Down Counting Rates, Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 8, pp. 414-416 (November, 1937). 38. University of Pennsylvania, Staff of Moore School of Electrical Engi- neering, The EN I AC (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa., June, 1946). 5 vols. 39. University of Pennsylvania, Staff of Moore School of Electrical Engi- neering, Theory and Techniques for Design of Electronic Digital Com- puters (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa., 1946). 2 vols. 40. Wellman, B., and K. Roeder, Electronic Counter for Rapid Impulses, Electronics, Vol. 15, No. 10, pp. 74, 140-142 (October, 1942). 41. Wild, John J., Predetermined Counters, Electronics, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 121-123 (March, 1947). 42. Wynn- Williams, C. E., The Use of Thyratrons for High Speed-Auto- matic Counting of Physical Phenomena, Proceedings of the Royal Society {London), Vol. 132, pp. 295-310 (1931). 43. Wynn- Williams, C. E., Thyratron "Scale-of-Two" Automatic Counter, Proceedings of the Royal Society {London), Vol. 136, pp. 312-324 (May, 1932).

**Chapter 4 SWITCHES AND GATES**

1. Aiken, H. H., and G. M. Hopper, The Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator — I, Electrical Engineering, Vol. 65, Nos. 8 and 9, pp. 384-391 (August-September, 1946); The Automatic Sequence Controlled Calcu- lator— II, ibid., No. 10, pp. 449-454 (October, 1946); The Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator — III, ibid., No. 11, pp. 522-528 (Novem- ber, 1946). 2. Burks, A. W., Electronic Computing Circuits of the ENIAC, Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers, Vol. 35, pp. 756-767 (1947). 3. Cornelius, E. C, Germanium Crystal Diodes, Electronics, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 118-123 (1946). 4. Dicke, R. H., A High Speed Coincidence Circuit, Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 18, pp. 907-914 (1947). 5. Harvard University, Staff of the Computation Laboratory, A Manual of Operation for the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, Annals of the Computation Laboratory of Harvard University, Vol. I (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1946). 6. Kurshan, Jerome, Cathode-Follower Gate Circuit, Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 18, pp. 647-649 (1947). 7. North, H. Q., Properties of Welded Contact Germanium Rectifiers, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 17, pp. 912-923 (1946). 8. Rossi, Bruno, Method of Registering Multiple Simultaneous Impulses of Several Geiger's Counters, Nature, Vol. 125, No. 3156, p. 636 (1930). 9. Stephens, W. E., Crystal Rectifiers, Electronics, Vol. 19, No. 7, pp. 112-119 (1946). 10. The Stevens Arnold Co., Inc., South Boston, Mass., Millisec Relay (1948). Pamphlet. 11. University of Pennsylvania, Staff of Moore School of Electrical Engi- neering, Report on the ENIAC, Technical Report I (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa., June 1, 1946). 2 vols. 12. University of Pennsylvania, Staff of Moore School of Electrical Engineering, Functional Description of the EDVAC, Research Division Report 50-9, a report of development work under contract W-36-034-ORD-7593 with the Ordnance Department, Department of the Army (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Nov. 1, 1949). 2 vols.

**CHAPTER 5 A FUNCTIONAL APPROACH TO MACHINE DESIGN**

```
1. Bloch, R. M., R. V. D. Campbell, and M. Ellis, Logical Design of the
Raytheon Computer, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation,
Vol. 3, No. 24, pp. 286-295, 317-322 (October, 1948).
2. Burks, Arthur H., Herman H. Goldstine, and John von Neumann,
Report on the Mathematical and Logical Aspects of an Electronic Computing
Instrument, 2d ed., Part I: Preliminary Discussion of the Logical Design
of an Electronic Computing Instrument (Institute for Advanced Study,
Princeton, N.J., 1947).
3. Harvard University, Staff of the Computation Laboratory, A Manual of
Operation for the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, Annals of the
Computation Laboratory of Harvard University, Vol. I (Harvard Univer-
sity Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1946).
```**CHAPTER 6 ARITHMETIC SYSTEMS **
1. Aitken, A. C, On Interpolation by Iteration of Proportional Parts,
without the Use of Differences, Proceedings of the Edinburgh Mathemati-
cal Society, Series 2, Vol. Ill, Part I, pp. 56-76 (March, 1932).
2. Bargmann, V., D. Montgomery, and J. von Neumann, Solution of
Linear Systems of High Order. Report prepared under Contract Nord-
9596 between the Bureau of Ordnance, Navy Department, and the
Institute for Advanced Study (Oct. 25, 1946).
3. Bennett, A. A., W. E. Milne, and H. Bateman, Numerical Integration
of Differential Equations, Bulletin 92 (The National Research Council
of The National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1933).
4. Bocher, M., Introduction to Higher Algebra (The Macmillan Company,
New York, 1907), pp. 17-18.
5. Crumpler, T. B., and J. H. Yoe, Chemical Computations and Errors
(John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1940).
6. Feller, W., On Ailken's Method of Interpolation, Quarterly of Applied
Mathematics, Vol. I, No. I, pp. 86-87 (April, 1943).
7. Ford, L. R., Differential Equations (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.,
New York, 1933), pp. 113-146, 147-162.
8. Frazer, R. A., W. J. Duncan, and A. R. Collar, Elementary Matrices and
Some Applications to Dynamics and Differential Equations (Cambridge
University Press, New York, 1946), pp. 148-155.
9. Hall, H. S., and S. R. Knight, Higher Algebra (Macmillan & Co., Ltd.,
London, 1946), pp. 459-460.
10. Ince, E. L., Ordinary Differential Equations (Longmans, Roberts and
Green, London; reprinted by Dover Publications, New York, 1944),
pp. 540-547.
11. Jeffreys, H., and B. S. Jeffreys, Methods of Mathematical Physics (Cam-
bridge University Press, New York, 1946), pp. 237-284.
12. von K&rman, T., and M. A. Biot, Mathematical Methods in Engineering
(McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1940), pp. 196-204.
13. Lederman, J., and M. Abramowitz, Application of Machines to Differ-
encing of Tables, Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol.
41, pp. 233-237 (June, 1946).
14. Levy, H., and E. A. Baggott, Numerical Studies in Differential Equa-
tions, Vol. I (C. A. Watts & Co., Ltd., London, 1934).
15. Margenau, H., and G. M. Murphy, The Mathematics of Physics and
Chemistry (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., New York, 1943).
16. Milne, W. E., Numerical Calculus (Princeton University Press, Prince-
ton, N.J., 1949).
17. von Neumann, J., and H. H. Goldstine, Numerical Inverting of Matrices
of High Order, Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, Vol. 53,
No. 11, pp. 1021-1099 (November, 1947).
18. Runge, C, and Konig, Numerisches Rechnen (Springer- Verlag, Berlin,
1924).
19. Scarborough, J. B., Numerical Mathematical Analysis (Johns Hopkins
Press, Baltimore, 1930).
20. Whittaker, E. T., and G. Robinson, The Calculus of Observations 4th ed.
(Blackie & Son, Ltd., Glasgow, 1944).

**Chapter 7 Numerical Analysis**

1. Comrie, L. J., The Application of Commercial Calculating Machines to Scientific Computing, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computa- tion, Vol. II, No. 16, pp. 149-159 (October, 1946). 2. Hutchinson's Technical and Scientific Encyclopedia, Calculating Machines, Vol. I (The Macmillan Company, New York, 1936), pp. 315- 319. 3. Marchant Calculating Machine Company, Marchant Methods, Index of Marchant Methods and Tables Issued to Nov. 1946 Relating to Basic and Statistical Mathematics, MM-229 Mathematics (Marchant Calculating Machine Company, Oakland, Calif., 1946).

**Chapter 9 Computing systems**

1. Eckert, W. J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation (Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, 1940). 2. International Business Machines Corporation, Bibliography on the Use of IBM Machines in Science, Statistics and Education (International Busi- ness Machines Corporation, New York, 1950). This bibliography consists of technical articles that describe researches in the various fields of science, statistics, and education conducted with the aid of IBM machines, and machine methods useful for such research. It is a revision of The Use of IBM Machines in Scientific Research, Statistics, and Educa- tion, which was published in 1947. Reproduction of Part A entitled Science and Part B entitled Statistics is made with the permission of the IBM Corporation. 3. Lehmer, D. N., Factor Stencils (Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D.C.; stencils revised and extended by J. D. Elder, 1939). 4. National Academy of Sciences, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation. Quarterly publication of the National Research Council, Washington, D.C.; first publication, January, 1943. BIBLIOGRAPHY Science Aiken, Howard H., and Grace M. Hopper, The Automatic Sequence Con- trolled Calculator, Electrical Engineering, Vol. 65, No. 8-9, pp. 384-391 (August-September, 1946); No. 10, pp. 449-454 (October, 1946); No. 11, pp. 522-528 (November, 1946). Akushsky, I. J., On Certain Schemes of the Numerical Harmonic Analysis, Comptes Rendus (Doklady) de I'Academie des Sciences de VURSS (N.S.), Vol. 52, pp. 471-474 (1946) (Russian). Akushsky, I. J., The Four-Counter Scheme of Solution of Dirichlet's Prob- lem by Means of Punched-Card Machines, Comptes Rendus (Doklady) de I'Academie des Sciences de I'URSS (N.S.), Vol. 54, No. 8, pp. 659-662 (1946) (Russian). Akushsky, I. J., Mathematical Tables on Punched Cards. Functions of One Variable, Akademiia Nauk SSSR, Otdelenie Tekhnicheskikh Nauk, No. 11, pp. 1405-1454 (1947) (Russian). Akushsky, I. J., New Methods for the Calculation of a Sum of Products with a Tabulator, Doklady Akademiia Nauk SSSR (N.S.), Vol. 60, No. 1, pp. 5-8 (1948) (Russian). Akushsky, I. J., Numerical Solution of the Dirichlet Equation with the Aid of Perforated Card Machines, Comptes Rendus (Doklady) de V Acade'mie des Sciences de I'URSS (N.S.), Vol. 52, No. 5, pp. 375-378 (1946) (Russian). Akushsky, I. J., On the Numerical Solution of Dirichlet Problem on Punched- Card Machines, Comptes Rendus (Doklady) de V Academie des Sciences de I'URSS (N.S.), Vol. 54, No. 9, pp. 755-758 (1946) (Russian). Akushsky, I. J., The Process of Diagonal Summation on a Tabulator and Some of Its Applications, Akademiia Nauk SSSR, Bulletin, Classe des Sciences Techniques, No. 5, pp. 475-495 (1947) (Russian). Akushsky, I. J., Some New Methods of Calculating Sums of Products on a Tabulator, Akademiia Nauk SSSR, Otdelenie Tekhnicheskikh Nauk, No. 8, pp. 1193-1228 (1948) (Russian). Alt, Franz L., Multiplication of Matrices, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Vol. 2, No. 13, pp. 12-13 (January, 1946). Atanasoff, J. V., and A. E. Brandt, Application of Punched Card Equipment to the Analysis of Complex Spectra, Journal of the Optical Society of America, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp. 83-88 (February, 1936). PUNCHED-CARD COMPUTING SYSTEMS 167 Bailar, John C, Jr., Karl F. Heumann, and Edwin J. Seiferle, The Use of Punched Card Techniques in the Coding of Inorganic Compounds, Journal of Chemical Education, Vol. 25, No. 3, pp. 142-143, 176 (March, 1948). Beevers, C. A., A Machine for the Rapid Summation of Fourier Series, Proceedings of the Physical Society (London), Vol. 51, Part 4, pp. 660-663; discussion, pp. 664-667 (July 1, 1939). Bell, William D., Punched Card Techniques for the Solution of Simultaneous Equations and Other Matrix Operations, Proceedings, Scientific Computa- tion Forum, pp. 28-31 (International Business Machines Corporation, New York, 1948). Bell, William D., A Simplified Punch-Card Approach to the Solution of the Flutter Determinant, Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 121-122 (February, 1948). Belzer, Jack, George Gamow, and Geoffrey Keller, Dynamics of Elliptical Galaxies, Proceedings, Scientific Computation Forum, pp. 67-69 (Interna- tional Business Machines Corporation, New York, 1948). Bergman, Stefan, Construction of a Complete Set of Solutions of a Linear Partial Differential Equation in Two Variables, by Use of Punch Card Machines, Quarterly of Applied Mathematics, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 233-245 (October, 1946). Bergman, Stefan, Punch- Card Machine Methods Applied to the Solution of the Torsion Problem, Quarterly of Applied Mathematics, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 69-81 (April, 1947). Berkeley, Edmund C, Giant Brains, or Machines that Think (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1949). 270 pp. Blanch, Gertrude, Differencing on the Type 405 Accounting Machine, Proceedings, Scientific Computation Forum, pp. 14-22 (International Busi- ness Machines Corporation, New York, 1948). Bower, Ernest Clare, On Subdividing Tables, Lick Observatory Bulletin, Vol. 16, No. 455, pp. 143-144, November, 1933. Bower, Ernest Clare, Systematic Subdivision of Tables, Lick Observatory Bulletin, Vol. 17, No. 467, pp. 65-74 (April, 1935). Bramble, Clinton C, Applications of Punched Card Equipment at the Naval Proving Ground, Proceedings, Scientific Computation Forum, pp. 99-100 (International Business Machines Corporation, New York, 1948). Brinkley, Stuart, R., Jr., and Robert W. Smith, Jr., Calculation of the Equilibrium Composition of Systems of Many Constituents, Proceedings, Scientific Computation Forum, pp. 77-82 (International Business Machines Corporation, New York, 1948). Brouwer, Dirk, On the Accumulation of Errors in Numerical Integration, Astronomical Journal, Vol. 46, No. 16, pp. 149-153 (October, 1937). Brouwer, Dirk, The Reference System with a View to Planetary Dynamics, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 42, Article 2, pp. 133-149 (October 15, 1941). Comrie, L. J., The Application of Commercial Calculating Machines to Scientific Computing, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Vol. 2, No. 16, pp. 149-159 (October, 1946). Comrie, L. J., The Application of the Hollerith Tabulating Machine to Brown's Tables of the Moon, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 92, No. 7, pp. 694-707 (May, 1932). Comrie, L. J., On the Construction of Tables by Interpolation, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 88, No. 6, pp. 506-523 (April, 1928). Comrie, L. J., Interpolation and Allied Tables, Nautical Almanac for 1937 (London). Comrie, L. J., Recent Progress in Scientific Computing, Journal of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 21, No. 8, pp. 129-135 (August, 1944). Comrie, L. J., Tables for Interpolation to Tenths and Fifths by the End Figure Process, Nautical Almanac for 1931, pp. 828-835 (London). Cox, E. G., R. J. J. H. Gillot, and G. A. Jeffrey, The Molecular Structure of Thiophthen from X-Ray Crystal Analysis, Acta Crystallographica, Vol. 2, Part 6, pp. 356-363 (December, 1949). Cox, E. G., L. Gross, and G. A. Jeffrey, A Hollerith Punched-Card Method for the Evaluation of Electron Density in Crystal Structure Analysis, Proceedings of the Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society, Vol. 5, Part 1 , pp. 1-13 (December, 1947). Cox, E. G., L. Gross, and G. A. Jeffrey, A Hollerith Technique for Comput- ing Three- Dimensional Differential Fourier Syntheses in X-Ray Crystal- Structure Analysis, Acta Crystallographica, Vol. 2, Part 6, pp. 351-355 (December, 1949). Cox, E. G., L. Gross, and G. A. Jeffrey, Use of Punched Card Tabulating Machines for Crystallographic Fourier Synthesis, Nature, Vol. 159, No. 4039, pp. 433-434 (March 29, 1947). Culley, Frank L., Use of Accounting Machines for Mass Transformation from Geographic to Military-Grid Coordinates, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union (National Research Council, Washington, D.C., November, 1942), Part 2, pp. 190-197. Curtiss- Wright Corporation, Punched Card Method in Structural Calculations, Report No. V-241-S-4 (Curtiss- Wright Corporation, Airplane Division, Buffalo, N.Y., March 23, 1945). Domb, C, On Iterative Solutions of Algebraic Equations, Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, Vol. 45, No. 2, pp. 237-240 (April, 1949). Donohue, Jerry, and Verner Schomaker, The Use of Punched Cards in Molecular Structure Determinations. III. Structure-Factor Calculations of X-Ray Crystallography, Acta Crystallographica, Vol. 2, Part 6, pp. 344-347 (December, 1949). Dreyer, H. J., Solution of Systems of Linear Equations by Means of Punched- Card Machines, No. F-TS-1046-RE (Headquarters Air Materiel Com- mand, Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio, December, 1946). 13 pp. Duncan, David B., and John F. Kenney, On the Solution of Normal Equations and Related Topics (Edwards Bros., Inc., Ann Arbor Mich., 1946). 35 pp. Dunstan, Lyle A., The General Solution Method of Power Network Analysis, American Institute of Electrical Engineers Technical Paper 48-103 (Febru- ary, 1948). 19 pp. Dunstan, Lyle A., Machine Computation of Power Network Performance, American Institute of Electrical Engineers Technical Paper 47-87 (Decem- ber, 1946). 33 pp. Dwyer, Paul S., The Solution of Simultaneous Equations, Psychometrika, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 101-129 (April, 1941). Dwyer, Paul S., The Use of Tables in the Form of Prepunched Cards, Proceedings of the Educational Research Forum; pp. 125-127 (International Business Machines Corporation, New York, August, 1940). Earthquake Calculations Are Made by Punched Card Machines, Engineering News Record, Vol. 141, No. 12, p. 110 (September 16, 1948). Eckert, W. J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopaedia Britannica, 13th Edition (1947), Vol. 4, pp. 548-554. Eckert, W. J., The Computation of Special Perturbations by the Punched Card Method, Astronomical Journal, Vol. 44, No. 20, pp. 177-182 (October, 1935). Eckert, W. J., Electronic and Electromagnetic Measuring, Computing and Recording Devices, Centennial Symposia, December, 1946, Harvard Observatory Monographs, No. 7, pp. 169-178 (1948). Eckert, W. J., Electrons and Computation, Scientific Monthly, Vol. 67, No. 5, pp. 315-323 (November, 1948). Eckert, W. J., The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathe- matical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Vol. 3, No. 23, pp. 149-161 (July, 1948). Eckert, W. J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation, (Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, 1940). 136 pp. (New edition in preparation.) Eckert, W. J., Punched-Card Techniques and Their Applications to Scientific Problems, Journal of Chemical Education, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 54-57, 74 (February, 1947). Eckert, W. J., and Ralph F. 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Lorge, Irving, The Computation of the Hotelling Canonical Correlation, Proceedings of the Educational Research Forum, pp. 68-74 (International Business Machines Corporation, New York, August, 1940). Martin, Caroline R., Hospital Medical Statistics (J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, 1933). 89 pp. Martin, Caroline R., The Value of the Work of a Central Medical Statistical Bureau. Paper read before the American Hospital Association, Mil- waukee, Sept. 13, 1933. 7 pp. Meacham, Alan D., The Tabulating Machine Method as Used for Modern Mathematical Statistics (Edwards Bros., Inc., Ann Arbor, Mich., 1930). 17 pp. Meacham, Alan D., The Value of the Collator in Using Prepunched Cards for Obtaining Moments and Product Moments, Proceedings of the Educational Research Forum, pp. 9-15 (International Business Machines Corporation, New York, August, 1940). Mendenhall, R. M., and Richard Warren, Computing Statistical Coefficients from Punched Cards, Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 53-62 (January, 1930). Millang, Amy, and G. F. Sprague, The Use of Punched Card Equipment in Predicting the Performance of Corn Double Crosses, American Society of Agronomy Journal, Vol. 32, No. 10, pp. 815-816 (October, 1940). Miller, Richard D., Punch Card Simplifies Records, Modern Hospital, Vol. 55, No. 1, p. 45 (July, 1940). Milliman, Wendell A., Mechanical Multiplication by the Use of Tabulating Machines, Transactions of the Actuarial Society of America, Vol. 35, Part 2, pp. 253-264 (October, 1934); Vol. 36, Part 1, pp. 77-84 (May, 1935). Pearl, Raymond, Modern Methods in Handling Hospital Statistics, Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin, Vol. 32, No. 364, pp. 184-194 (June, 1921). Reagh, Russell R., A Simplified Code for Multiple Card Punching, Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 29, No. 186, pp. 182-183 (June, 1934). Reid, Mabel, Use of IBM Punch Cards, Public Health Nursing, Vol. 39, No. 2, pp. 83-85 (February, 1947). Rosahn, Paul D., The Punched Card Technique as Applied to Autopsy Protocol Analysis, Journal of Technical Methods, Vol. 18, pp. 32-36 (November, 1938). Royer, Elmer B., A Machine Method for Computing the Biserial Correlation Coefficient in Item Validation, Psychometrika, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 55-59 (February, 1941). Royer, Elmer B., and Herbert A. Toops, The Statistics of Geometrically Coded Scores, Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 28, No. 182, pp. 192-198 (June, 1933). Schreiber, Frederic, and Aage Nielsen, Punch Card Code for Classifica- tion of Craniocerebral Injuries, Journal of the Michigan State Medical Society, Vol. 37, No. 10, pp. 909-912 (October, 1938). Smith, Bradford B., The Use of Punched Card Tabulating Equipment in Multiple Correlation Problems (U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Agricultural Economics, Washington, D.C., October, 1923). 24 pp. Tajdor, Erwin K., Use of a Single Card Column for Recording Variables with a Range of 30 or Fewer Units, Proceedings of the Research Forum, pp. 63-67 (International Business Machines Corporation, New York, August, 1946). Toops, Herbert A., Annotated Bibliography of Tabulating and Recording Devices, Ohio College Association Bulletin, No. 122, pp. 2401-2410 (April 13, 1940). Toops, Herbert A., Research Possibilities of Addends, Proceedings of the Research Forum, pp. 68-74 (International Business Machines Corporation, New York, August, 1946). Tucker, Ledyard R., The Centroid Method of Factor Analysis by Punched Cards, Bibliofilm Manuscript No. 1623 (University of Chicago Library, 1941). Tucker, Ledyard R., A Note on the Computation of a Table of Intercorrela- tions, Psychometrika, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 245-250 (December, 1948). Tucker, Ledyard R., A Note on a Machine Method for the Quantification of Attributes, The Prediction of Personal Adjustment (Paul Horst, Editor), Bulletin No. 48, pp. 347-348 (Social Science Research Council, New York, 1941). Tucker, Ledyard R., Simplified Card Methods in Factor Analysis, Proceed- ings of the Research Forum, pp. 9-19 (International Business Machines Cor- poration, New York, August, 1946). Usilton, Lida J., A Mechanical System for Record Keeping of Morbidity, Treatment-Progress, and Control of Venereal Diseases, Venereal Disease Information, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 61-67 (March, 1940). Varossieau, W. W., Use of the U. D. C. in Selecting Data with Mechanical Appliances, Revue de la Documentation, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 41-46 (1948). Vickery, C. W., On Drawing a Random Sample from a Set of Punched Cards, Supplement to the Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 62-66 (1939). Wallace, Henry A., and George W. Snedecor, Correlation and Machine Calculation, Official Publication of Iowa State College, Vol. 23, No. 35 (January 28, 1925). 47 pp. Wangeman, C. P., An Experiment in the Recording of Surgical and Anes- thetic Data in Military Service. The Adaptation of Hollerith Punch Cards, Used at Second Army Maneuvers, 1940, Anesthesiology, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 179-185 (March, 1941). Warren, Richard, Hollerith Machine Computation of Least Square Trend Lines, Columbia University Statistical Bureau Document, No. 2 (1933). 35 pp. Warren, Richard, and R. M. Mendenhall, The Mendenhall- Warren-Hollerith Correlation Method, Columbia University Statistical Bureau Document, No. 1 (1929). 34 pp.

**Chapter 10 Large Scale Computing Systems**

Design Characteristics of Digital Computing Systems 1. Aiken, H. H., and G. M. Hopper, The Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator — I, Electrical Engineering, Vol. 65, Nos. 8 and 9, pp. 384-391 (August-September, 1946); The Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator — II, ibid., No. 10, pp. 449-454 (October, 1946); The Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator—Ill, ibid., No. 11, pp. 522-528 (November, 1946). 2. Alt, F. L., A Bell Telephone Laboratories Computing Machine — I, Mathe- matical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Vol. Ill, No. 21, pp. 1-13 (January, 1948); A Bell Telephone Laboratories Computing Machine — 27, ibid., No. 22, pp. 69-84 (April, 1948). 3. Bloch, R. M., Mark I Calculator in Proceedings of a Symposium on Large-Scale Digital Calculating Machinery (Jan. 7-10, 1947), Annals of the Computation Laboratory of Harvard University, Vol. XVI (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1948), pp. 23-30. 4. Bloch, R. M., R. V. D. Campbell, and M. Ellis, The Logical Design of the Raytheon Computer, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Compu- tation, Vol. Ill, No. 24, pp. 286-295 (October, 1948). See also General Design Considerations for the Raytheon Computer, ibid., pp. 317-322. 5. Burks, A. W., H. H. Goldstine, and J. von Neumann, Preliminary Discussion of the Logical Design of an Electronic Computing Instrument. Report prepared under Contract W-33-034-ORD-7481 between the Research and Development Service, Ordnance Department, U.S. Army, and the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, N.J. (June 28, 1946). 6. Campbell, R. V. D., Mark II Calculator in Proceedings of a Symposium on Large-Scale Digital Calculating Machinery (Jan. 7-10, 1947), Annals of the Computation Laboratory of Harvard University, Vol. XVI (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1948), pp. 69-79. 7. Eckert, W. J., The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathe- matical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Vol. Ill, No. 23, pp. 149-161 (July, 1948). 8. The Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation, The UN I VAC System (1947). Pamphlet prepared by The Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation, Philadelphia. 9. Engineering Research Associates, Inc., Selective Alteration of Digital Data in a Magnetic Drum Computer Memory. Report prepared for ONR, under Contract N6onr-240 Task I with Engineering Research Associates, Inc., St. Paul, Minn. (Dec. 1, 1947). 10. Engineering Research Associates, Inc., Summary of Characteristics, Magnetic Drum Storage Computer. Report prepared for the National Bureau of Standards, Department of Commerce, under Contract CST- 10133 with Engineering Research Associates, Inc., St. Paul, Minn., Part I (Nov. 30, 1948). 11. Engineering Research Associates, Inc., Examples of Coding, Magnetic Drum Binary Computer. Report prepared for the National Bureau of Standards, Department of Commerce, under Contract CST-10133 with Engineering Research Associates, Inc., St. Paul, Minn., Part II (Nov. 30, 1948). 12. Goldstine, H. H., and Adele Goldstine, The Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC), Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Vol. II, No. 15, pp. 97-110 (July, 1946). 13. Goldstine, H. H., and J. von Neumann, Planning and Coding of Problems for an Electronic Computing Instrument. Report, The Mathematical and Logical Aspects of an Electronic Computing Instrument, Part II, Vol. I, prepared under Contract No. W-36-034-ORD-7481 between the Research and Development Service, U.S. Army Ordnance Department, and the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, N.J. (1947). 14. Goldstine, H. H., and J. von Neumann, Planning and Coding of Problems for an Electronic Computing Instrument. Report, The Mathematical and Logical Aspects of an Electronic Computing Instrument, Part II, Vol. II, prepared under Contract No. W-36-034-ORD-7481 between the Research and Development Service, U.S. Army Ordnance Department, and the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, N.J. (1948). 15. Hartree, D. R., Calculating Machines (Macmillan & Co., Ltd., London, 1947). 16. Hartree, D. R., The ENIAC, an Electronic Computing Machine, Nature, Vol. 158, No. 4015, pp. 500-506 (Oct. 12, 1946). 17. Harvard University, Staff of the Computation Laboratory, A Manual of Operation for the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, Annals of the Computation Laboratory of Harvard University, Vol. I (Harvard Univer- sity Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1946). This manual contains an exten- sive bibliography on numerical analysis, pp. 338-396. 18. International Business Machines Corporation, IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (1945). Pamphlet of the International Business Machines Corporation, New York. 19. International Business Machines Corporation, IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (1948). Brochure of IBM Corporation, New York. IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator Is Dedicated to Science, Business Machines, Vol. 30, No. 11, pp. 1-12 (March, 1948). 20. von Neumann, J., The Principles of Large-Scale Computing Machines (mimeographed by ORI, Navy Department No. 6553) 16 pp. Address delivered at a meeting of the Mathematical Computing Advisory Panel of the Office of Research and Inventions, May 15, 1946. 21. Stibitz, G. R., Relay Computers, Report 171.1 R of the Applied Mathe- matics Panel of the National Defense Research Committee (February, 1945). 22. United States Air Force, Scientific Planning Techniques, Discussion Paper 1-DU, Project SCOOP (Planning Research Division, Director of Program Standards and Cost Control, Washington, D.C., Aug. 5, 1948). 23. University of Pennsylvania, Staff of Moore School of Electrical Engi- neering, Report on the EN I AC, Technical Report I (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, June 1, 1946). 24. University of Pennsylvania, Staff of Moore School of Electrical Engi- neering, Functional Description of the EDVAC, Research Division Report 50-9, a report of development work under contract W-36-034-ORD-7593 with the Ordnance Department, Department of the Army (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Nov. 1, 1949). 2 vols. 25. Williams, S. B., Bell Telephone Laboratories Relay Computing System in Proceedings of a Symposium on Large-Scale Digital Calculating Machinery (Jan. 7-10, 194-7), Annals of the Computation Laboratory of Harvard University, Vol. XVI (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1948), pp. 41-68. 26. Alt, F. L., The Multiplication of Matrices, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Vol. II, No. 13, pp. 12-13 (January, 1946). 27. Alt, F. L., A Bell Telephone Laboratories Computing Machine — II, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Vol. Ill, No. 22, pp. 81-84 (April, 1948). 28. Andrews, E. G., and H. W. Bode, Use of the Relay Digital Computer, Electrical Engineering, Vol. 69, No. 2, pp. 158-161 (February, 1950). 29. Berkeley, E. C, Electronic Machinery for Handling Information and Its Uses in Insurance, Transactions of the Actuarial Society of America, Vol. 48, Part 1, pp. 36-52 (1947). 30. Bleick, W. E., Calculating Machine Solution of Quadratic and Cubic Equations by the Odd Number Method, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Vol. II, No. 20, pp. 321-324 (October, 1947). Method for possible application to Mark I Calculator or to the ENIAC. 31. Bush, V., As We May Think, Atlantic Monthly, Vol. 176, No. 7, pp. 101-108 (July, 1945). A high-speed (microfilm) selector of the Memex type, suggested in this article, has been constructed by Engineering Research Associates, Inc., for the Department of Agriculture. Pre- liminary tests indicate satisfactory performance. 32. Clippinger, R. F., Airflow Problem Planned for the ENIAC, Mathe- matical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Vol. Ill, No. 23, pp. 206-207 (July, 1948). Summary of paper presented at the meeting of the Association for Computing Machinery held at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, Md., Dec. 11-12, 1947. 33. Curry, H. B., and W. A. Wyatt, A Study of Inverse Interpolation on the ENIAC, Report 615 (Ballistic Research Laboratories, August, 1946). 34. Harvard University, Evaluation of the Function S(byh) = Psin (x 2 + 6 2 ) 1 ' 2 dx/(x 2 + b 2 ) 1 ^ Report 2, Computation Laboratory Reports for the Bureau of Ships, Navy Department (June, 1944); Evaluation of the Function C(bih) = f h cos (x* + b 2 )^ dx/(x 2 + b 2 ) 1 ^ Report 10 Computation Laboratory Reports for the Bureau of Ships, Navy Department (October, 1944). 35. Harvard University, Computation Laboratory, Fifteen-Place Table of e~ x , Publication 20, Computation Laboratory for the Bureau of Ships (July, 1945). Out of Print. 36. Harvard University, Staff of the Computation Laboratory, Tables for the Design of Missiles, Annals of the Computation Laboratory of Harvard University, Vol. XVII (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1948). 37. Harvard University, Staff of the Computation Laboratory, Tables of the Modified Hankel Functions of Order One-Third and of Their Derivatives, Annals of the Computation Laboratory of Harvard University, Vol. II (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1945); Tables of the Bessel Functions of the First Kind of Orders Zero and One, ibid., Vol. Ill (1947) ; Tables of the Bessel Functions of the First Kind of Orders Two and Three, ibid., Vol. IV (1947); Tables of the Bessel Functions of the First Kind of Orders Four, Five, and Six, ibid., Vol. V (1947); Tables of the Bessel Functions of the First Kind of Orders Seven, Eight, and Nine, ibid., Vol. VI (1947); Tables of the Bessel Functions of the First Kind of Orders Ten, Eleven, and Twelve, ibid., Vol. VII (1947); Tables of the Bessel Functions of the First Kind of Orders Thirteen, Fourteen, and Fifteen, ibid., Vol. VIII (1947); Tables of the Bessel Functions of the First Kind of Orders Sixteen Through Twenty-Seven, ibid., Vol. IX (1948); Proceedings of a Symposium on Large-Scale Digital Calculating Machinery, ibid., Vol. XVI (1948). 38. Hicks, B. L., and H. G. Landau, Nonlinear Parabolic Equations, Mathe- matical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Vol. Ill, No. 23, pp. 207- 208 (July, 1948). Summary of paper presented at the meeting of the Association for Computing Machinery held at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, Md., Dec. 11-12, 1947. 39. Holberton, J. V., Laminar Boundary Layer Flow in a Compressible Fluid, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Vol. Ill, No. 23, p. 208 (July, 1948). Summary of paper presented at the meet- ing of the Association for Computing Machinery held at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, Md., Dec. 11-12, 1947. 40. International Business Machines Corporation, IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (1948) p. 3. Pamphlet of the IBM Corporation, New York. 41. Irwin, J. B., The Expected Performance of the EDVAC on Some Astronomical Problems, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 60, No. 355, pp. 235-244 (August, 1944). 42. McPherson, J. L., Applications of Large-Scale High-Speed Computing Machines to Statistical Work, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Vol. Ill, No. 22, pp. 121-126 (April, 1948). 43. Mitchell, H. F., Jr., Inversion of a Matrix of Order 38, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Vol. Ill, No. 23, pp. 161-166 (July, 1948). 44. Seeger, R. J., On Computational Techniques for Certain Problems in Fluid Dynamics, in Proceedings of a Symposium on Large-Scale Digital Calculating Machinery (Jan. 7-10, 1947), Annals of the Computation Laboratory of Harvard University, Vol. XVI (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1948), pp. 157-167

**Chapter 11 Components and Characteristics of Differential Analyzers **

1. Amble, O., On a Principle of Connexion of Bush Integrators, Journal of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 23, pp. 284-287 (1946). 2. Beard, R. E., The Construction of a Small-Scale Differential Analyzer and Its Application to the Calculation of Actuarial Functions, Journal of the Institute of Actuaries, Vol. 71, pp. 193-227 (1942). 3. Brown, G. S., and A. C. Hall, Dynamic Behavior and Design of Servo- mechanisms, Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engi- neers, Vol. 68, pp. 503-524 (1946). 4. Brown, G. S., and D. P. Campbell, Principles of Servomechanisms (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1948). 5. Bush, V., F. D. Gage, and H. R. Stewart, A Continuous Integraph, Journal of the Franklin Institute, Vol. 203, pp. 63-84 (1927). 6. Bush, V., and H. L. Hazen, Integraph Solution of Differential Equa- tions, Journal of the Franklin Institute, Vol. 204, pp. 575-615 (1927). 7. Bush, V., Operational Circuit Analysis (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1929). 8. Bush, V., The Differential Analyzer. A New Machine for Solving Differential Equations, Journal of the Franklin Institute, Vol. 212, pp. 447-488 (1931). 9. Bush, V., and S. H. Caldwell, A New Type of Differential Analyzer, Jour- nal of the Franklin Institute, Vol. 240, No. 4, pp. 255-326 (October, 1945). 10. Gardner, M. F., and J. L. Barnes, Transients in Linear Systems (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1942). 11. Greenwood, I. A., Jr., J. V. Holdam, Jr., and D. MacRae, Jr., Electronic Instruments, Radiation Laboratory Series, Vol. 21 (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1948). 12. Harris, H., The Analysis and Design of Servomechanisms, Report 454, Office of Scientific Research and Development, Washington, D.C. (January, 1942). 13. Hartree, D. R., The Differential Analyzer, Nature, Vol. 135, pp. 940- 943 (June 8, 1935). 14. Hartree, D. R., and A. Porter, The Construction of a Model Differential Analyzer, Memoirs and Proceedings of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, Vol. 79, pp. 51-72 (July, 1935). 15. Hartree, D. R., The Mechanical Integration of Differential Equations, Mathematical Gazette, Vol. 22, pp. 342-363 (1938). 16. Hartree, D. R., Recent Developments in Calculating Machines, Journal of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 24, pp. 172-176 (July, 1947). 17. Hazen, H. L., Theory of Servomechanisms, Journal of the Franklin Institute, Vol. 218, No. 3, pp. 279-330 (September, 1934). 18. Hazen, H. L., J. J. Jaeger, and G. S. Brown, An Automatic Curve Fol- lower, Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 7, pp. 353-357 (September, 1936). 19. Jackson, J. M., Solution of Differential Equations by an Electronic Differ- ential Analyzer, Admiralty Computing Service Report (Department of Scientific Research and Development, London; reprinted by the Office of Research and Inventions, Navy Department, Washington, D.C, July, 1946). 20. James, H. M., N. B. Nichols, and R. S. Phillips, Theory of Servomechan- isms, Radiation Laboratory Series, Vol. 25 (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1947). 21. Koehler, J. S., An Electronic Differential Analyzer, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 19, pp. 148-155 (1948). 22. Kuehne, H. P., and H. A. Peterson, A New Differential Analyzer, Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Vol. 63, pp. 221-228 (May, 1944). 23. Lennard-Jones, J. E., M. V. Wilkes, and J. B. Bratt, The Design of a Small Differential Analyzer, Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, Vol. 35 (III), pp. 485-493 (July, 1939). 24. Linville, T. M., and J. S. Woodward, Selsyn Instruments for Position Systems, Electrical Engineering, Vol. 53, p. 953 (1934). 25. Massey, H. S. W., J. Wylie, and R. A. Buckingham, A Small Scale Differential Analyzer: Its Construction and Operation, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Vol. 45, pp. 1-21 (1938). 26. Murray, Francis J., The Theory of Mathematical Machines, 2d rev. ed. (King's Crown Press, New York, 1948). 27. Princeton University, Bibliography on Feedback Amplifiers, Technical Report 5 under Contract N6onr-105 Task Order VI between the Office of Naval Research, Navy Department, and Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, N.J. (March, 1948). 28. Princeton University, Circuits for a Linear Negative Resistance and for a Constant Voltage-Ratio Power Amplifier, Technical Report 2 under Contract N6onr-105 Task Order VI between the Office of Naval Research, Navy Department, and Department of Electrical Engineer- ing, Princeton University, Princeton, N.J. (December, 1947). 29. Sack, H. S., R. T. Beyer, G. H. Miller, and J. W. Trischka, Special Magnetic Amplifiers and Their Use in Computing Circuits, Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers, Vol. 35, pp. 1375-1382 (November, 1947). 30. Shannon, C. E., Mathematical Theory of the Differential Analyzer, Journal of Mathematics and Physics (Massachusetts Institute of Technol- ogy), Vol. 20, pp. 337-354 (1941). 31. Stibitz, G. R., A New Class of Computing Aids, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Vol. Ill, No. 23, pp. 217-221 (July, 1948); Function Unit Theory of Computing Devices, Report 1309 (May, 1948). Available on request from Taller and Cooper, Inc., Brooklyn, N.Y. 32. University of California at Los Angeles, Staff of the Department of Engineering, The Differential Analyzer of the University of California (1947). Pamphlet published by the University of California, Los Angeles. 25 pp. 33. Zagor, H., Description of a Reeves Electronic Analog Computer (REAC), Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Vol. Ill, No. 24, pp. 326-327 (October, 1948). Notes on paper presented by Mr. Zagor before the American Physical Society, Apr. 30, 1948. Network Analyzers 34. Hazen, H. L., H. R. Schurig, and M. F. Gardner, The MIT Network Analyzer, Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Vol. 49, p. 1102 (July, 1930). 35. Kuehne, H. P., and R. G. Lorraine, A New A-C Network Analyzer, Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Vol. 57, pp. 67-73 (February, 1938). 36. Peterson, H. A., and C. Concordia, Analyzers for Use in Engineering and Scientific Problems, General Electric Review, Vol. 49, pp. 29-37 (September, 1945). 37. Princeton University, A Network for Solving Certain Ordinary Non- linear Differential Equations by Analogy, Technical Re-port 1 under Con- tract N6ori-105 Task Order VI between the Office of Naval Research, Navy Department, and Department of Electrical Engineering, Prince- ton University, Princeton, N.J. (October, 1947). 38. Spangenburg, K., and G. Walters, An Electrical Network for the Study of Electromagnetic Fields, Technical Report 1, ONR Contract N6-ori-106 Task III (May 15, 1947). Special Analog Systems 39. Adcock, W. A., An Automatic Simultaneous Equation Computer and Its Use in Solving Secular Equations, Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 19, pp. 181-187 (March, 1948). 40. Berry, C. E., D. E. Wilcox, S. M. Rock, and H. W. Washburn, A Com- puter for Solving Linear Simultaneous Equations, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 262-272 (May, 1946). 41. Booth, A. D., Two Calculating Machines for X-ray Crystal Structure Analysis, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 18, pp. 664-666 (July, 1947). 42. Brown, S. L., A Mechanical Harmonic Synthesizer-Analyzer, Journal of the Franklin Institute, Vol. 228, pp. 675-694 (1939). 43. Dietzold, R. L., The Isograph, A Mechanical Root Finder, Bell Labora- tories Record, Vol. 16, pp. 130-134 (1937). 44. Frame, J. S., Machines for Solving Algebraic Equations, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Vol. 1, No. 9, pp. 337-351 (Jan- uary, 1945). 45. Frost, A. A., and M. Tamres, A Potentiometric Secular Equation Com- puter, Journal of Chemical Physics r Vol. 15, pp. 383-390 (June, 1947). 46. Goldberg, E. A., and G. W. Brown, An Electronic Simultaneous Equa- tion Solver, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 19, pp. 338-345 (April, 1948). 47. Hagg, G., and T. Laurent, A Machine for the Summation of Fourier Series, Journal of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 23, pp. 155-158 (1946). 48. Mallock, R. R. M., An Electrical Calculating Machine, Proceedings of the Royal Society, Vol. 140, p. 457 (1933). 49. Murray, F. J., The Theory of Mathematical Machines (King's Crown Press, New York 1948). 50. Ragazzini, J. R., Robert H. Randall, and F. A. Russel, Analysis of Problems in Dynamics by Electronic Circuits, Proceedings of the Insti- tute of Radio Engineers, Vol. 35, pp. 444-452 (May, 1947). 51. Wilbur, J. B., The Mechanical Solution of Simultaneous Equations, Journal of the Franklin Institute, Vol. 222, pp. 715-724 (1936). Analog Computer Applications 52. Brown, S. L., and L. L. Wheeler, Use of the Mechanical Multiharmoni- graph for Graphing Types of Functions and for Solution of Pairs of Nonlinear Simultaneous Equations, Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 13, pp. 493-495 (1942). 53. Brown, S. L., and L. L. Wheeler, The Use of a Mechanical Synthesizer to Solve Trigonometric and Certain Types of Transcendental Equations, and for the Double Summations Involved in Patterson Contours, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 14, pp. 30-36 (1943). 54. Bush, V., and S. H. Caldwell, Thomas-Fermi Equation Solution by the Differential Analyzer, Physical Review, Vol. 38, pp. 1898-1902 (1931). 55. Carter, G. K., Numerical and Network-analyzer Tests of an Equivalent Circuit for the Elastic Field, Journal of Applied Mechanics, p. A- 162 (September, 1944). 56. Carter, G. K., and G. Kron, A-C Network Analyzer Study of the Schro- dinger Equation, Physical Review, Vol. 67, pp. 44-49 (January, 1945). 57. Clarke, E., and S. B. Crary, Stability Limitations of Long-distance A-C Power Transmission Systems, Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Vol. 60, pp. 1051-1059 (1941). 58. Concordia, C, Network and Differential Analyzer Solutions of Tor- sional Oscillation Problems Involving Nonlinear Springs, Journal of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 12, pp. A43-A47 (March, 1945). 59. dePackh, D. C, A Resistor Network for the Approximate Solution of the Laplace Equation, Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 18, pp. 798-799 (1947). 60. Hartree, D. R., and J. R. Womersley, A Method for the Numerical or Mechanical Solution of Certain Types of Partial Differential Equa- tions, Proceedings of the Royal Society (London), Vol. 161A, pp. 353- 366 (1937). 61. Hartree, D. R., and A. Porter, The Application of the Differential Analyzer to Transients on a Distortionless Transmission Line, Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers (London), Vol. 83, pp. 648-656 (1936). 62. Hartree, D. R., The Application of the Differential Analyzer to the Evaluation of Solutions of Partial Differential Equations, Proceedings of the First Canadian Mathematical Congress, Montreal, 1945 (University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1946), pp. 327-337. 63. Kron, G., and G. K. Carter, Numerical and Network Analyzer Tests of an Equivalent Circuit for Compressible Fluid Flow, Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences, Vol. 12, p. 232 (April, 1945). 64. Levin, J. H., On the Approximate Solution of a Partial Differential Equation on the Differential Analyzer, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Vol. Ill, No. 23, pp. 208-209 (July, 1948). 65. Maginniss, F. J., Differential Analyzer Applications, General Electric Review, Vol. 48, pp. 54-59 (May, 1945). 66. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Electrical Engi- neering, Center of Analysis, Tables of Supersonic Flow around Yawing Cones, Report 3 under Contract NOrd 9169. 67. Peterson, H. A., and C. Concordia, Analyzers for Use in Engineering and Scientific Problems, General Electric Review, Vol. 48, No. 9, pp. 29-37 (September, 1945). 68. Reed Research, Inc., A Constant Power Circuit and Its Application to Instrumentation and Computation; Unpublished, Washington, D. C; Oct. 12, 1949. 69. Schumann, T. E. W., The Principles of a Mechanical Method for Cal- culating Regression Equations and Multiple Correlation Coefficients and for the Solution of Simultaneous Linear Equations, Philosophical Magazine, Vol. 29, Seventh Series, pp. 258-273 (March, 1940). 70. Walters, G., and R. L. Tanner, Universal Tuning Curves for Reentrant Cavity Resonators, Technical Report 2, ONR Contract N6-ori-106 Task III (Aug. 15, 1947). 71. Whinnery, J. R., C. Concordia, W. Ridgeway, and G. Kron, Network Analyzer Studies of Electromagnetic Cavity Resonators, Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers, Vol. 32, pp. 360-367 (June, 1944).

**Chapter 12 The Form of a Digital Computer**

1. Harvard University, Staff of the Computation Laboratory, A Manual of Operation for the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, Annals of the Computation Laboratory of Harvard University, Vol. I (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1946). 2. Hastings, Charles E., Raydist — a Radio Navigation and Tracking Sys- tem, Tele-Tech., Vol. 6, No. 6, pp. 30-34 (June, 1947).

**Chapter 13 Arithmetic Elements**

1. Alt, F. L., A Bell Telephone Laboratories Computing Machine — I, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Vol. 3, No. 21, pp. 1-13 (January, 1948). 2. Burks, A. W., Electronic Computing Circuits of the ENIAC, Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers, Vol. 35, pp. 756-767 (August, 1947). 3. Burks, A. W., H. H. Goldstine, and J. von Neumann, Preliminary Dis- cussion of the Logical Design of an Electronic Computing Instrument. Report prepared under Contract W-33-034-ORD-7481 between the Research and Development Service, Ordnance Department, U.S. Army, and the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, N.J. (June 28, 1946). 4. Hilbert, D., and W. Ackerman, Grundzuge der Theoretische Logik (J. Springer, Berlin, 1928). 5. Mauchly, J. W., Preparation of Problems for ED VAC Type Machine, Annals of the Computation Laboratory of Harvard University, Vol. XVI, pp. 203-207 (1948). 6. Rajchman, J. A., R.C.A. Computron, Final Report, LC PB 40611 (Office of Technical Services, Department of Commerce, March, 1943). 129 pp. 7. Tar ski, Andrew, Introduction to Logic (Oxford University Press, New York, 1939). 8. University of Pennsylvania, Staff of Moore School of Electrical Engi- neering, Report on the ENIAC, Technical Report I (University of Penn- sylvania, Philadelphia, June 1, 1946). 2 vols. 9. University of Pennsylvania, Staff of Moore School of Electrical Engi- neering, Progress Report on the EDVAC (University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, June 30, 1946). 2 vols. 10. West, C. F., and J. E. DeTurk, Digital Computer for Scientific Applica- tions, Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers, Vol. 36, No. 12, pp. 1452-1460 (December, 1948).

**Chapter 14 TRANSFER MEDIUMS **

Relay Storage 1. M.I.T. Radiation Laboratory Staff, Relay Data Including Shock and Vibration Measurements, Radiation Laboratory Report 747 (Aug. 1, 1945). 2. Rosslyn, J., Electric Relays (Chemical Publishing Company, Inc., Brooklyn, 1921). Punched-tape Storage 3. Alexander, Samuel N., Input and Output Devices for Electronic Digital Calculating Machinery, Annals of the Computation Laboratory of Harvard University, Vol. XVI, pp. 248-253 (1948). 4. Lake, Ross A., Teletype Reperforator Transmitter for Automatic Switching Systems, Bell Laboratories Record, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 106-110 (March, 1948). 5. Miller, Frederick G., Application of Printing Telegraph Equipment to Large-Scale Calculating Machinery, Annals of the Computation Labora- tory of Harvard University, Vol. XVI, pp. 213-222 (1948). 6. Sparks, S., and R. G. Kreer, Tape Relay System for Radio-Telegraph Operation, RCA Review, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 393-426 (September, 1947). 7. Williams, S. B., Bell Telephone Laboratories Relay Computing System, Annals of the Computation Laboratory of Harvard University, Vol. XVI, pp. 41-68 (1948). Photographic Storage 8. Carlson, F. E., and D. A. Prichard, Flash Tubes, Illumination Engineer- ing, Vol. 42, pp. 235-248 (February, 1947). 9. Mees, C. E. Kenneth, The Theory of the Photographic Process (The Macmillan Company, New York, 1942), pp. 838. 10. O'Neal, R. D., Photographic Methods for Handling Input and Output Data, Annals of the Computation Laboratory of Harvard University, Vol. XVI, pp. 260-266 (1948). 11. O'Neal, R. D., and A. W. Tyler, Photographic Digital Reader- Recorder, Progress Report 1 (Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N.Y., 1948). 12. Tyler, A. W., Optical and Photographic Storage Techniques, Annals of the Computation Laboratory of Harvard University, Vol. XVI, pp. 146-150 (1948). Magnetic Storage 13. Aldous, D. W., A Bibliography of Magnetic Recording, Electronic Engineering, Vol. 19, pp. 390-391 (December, 1947). 14. Barrett, A. E., and C. J. F. Tweed, Some Aspects of Magnetic Record- ing, Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers (London), Vol. 82, No. 495, pp. 265-285 (March, 1938). 15* Begun, S. J., Recent Developments in Magnetic Sound Recording, Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, Vol. 48, pp. 1-13 (1947). 16. Begun, S. J., Magnetic Recording and Some of Its Applications in the Broadcast Field, Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers, Vol. 29, No. 8, pp. 423-433 (August, 1941). 17. Begun, S. J., Magnetic Recording (Murray Hill Books, Inc., New York, 1949). 18. Boenning, W. R., Magnetic Recording and Reproduction of Pulses (Engi- neering Research Associates, Inc., Arlington, Va., 1947). 19. Bozorth, R. M., Magnetism, Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 29-86 (January, 1947). 20. Camras, M., Recent Developments in Magnetic Recording for Motion Picture Film, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 19, pp. 322-325 (March, 1947). 21. Camras, M., Theoretical Response from a Magnetic-Wire Record, Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers, Vol. 34, pp. 597-602 (August, 1946). 22. Cohen, A. A., and W. R. Keye, Selective Alteration of Digital Data in a Magnetic Drum Computer Memory, unpublished (P^ngineering Research Associates, Inc., St. Paul, Minn., 1948.) Pamphlet. 23. Coombs, J. M., Storage of Numbers on Magnetic Tape (Engineering Research Associates, Inc., St. Paul, Minn., 1947). Pamphlet. 24. Hansel, C. W., et at., Report on the Magnetophone, OTS Report PB 1346 (1945). 25. Hickman, C. N., Sound Recording on Magnetic Tape, Bell System Technical Journal, Vol. 16, pp. 165-177 (1937). 26. Holmes, L. C, and D. L. Clark, Supersonic Bias for Magnetic Recording, Electronics, Vol. 18, pp. 126-136 (July, 1945). 27. Korhone, E. D., L. W. Reid, and W. L. Anderson, Preparation and Characteristics of Magnetic Recording Surfaces, pamphlet prepared by Engineering Research Associates, Inc., under Bureau of Ships contract NObsr 42001 (Jan. 7, 1949). 28. Kornei, Otto, Survey of Magnetic Storage, Annals of the Computation Laboratory of Harvard University, Vol. XVI, pp. 223-237 (1948). 29. Long, T. H., and G. D. McMullen, B-H Curve Tracer for Magnetic Recording Wire, Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Vol. 65, pp. 146-149 (1946). 30. Long, T. H., A New Wire Recorder Head Design, Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Vol. 65, pp. 216-219 (1946). 31. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Staff of the Department of Electrical Engineering, Magnetic Circuits and Transformers (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1943), pp. 3-40. 32. Menard, J. Z., High Frequency Magnetophone Magnetic Sound Recorders, OTS Report PB 12659 (1946). 33. Moore, B. L., Magnetic and Phosphor Coated Discs in Proceedings of a Symposium on Large-Scale Digital Calculating Machinery (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1948), pp. 130-132. 34. Sears, A. W., Wire Recorder Wow, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 172-178 (January, 1947). 35. Selby, M. C, Investigation of Magnetic Tape Recorders, Electronics, Vol. 17, pp. 133-135 (May, 1944). 36. Shaper, H. B., FM Magnetic Tape Transient Recorder, Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers, Vol. 33, pp. 753-760 (November, 1945). 37. Sheppard, C. B., Transfer between External and Internal Memory Annals of the Computation Laboratory of Harvard University, Vol. XVI, pp. 267-273 (1948). 38. Toomim, H., and D. Wildfeuer, Mechanism of Supersonic Frequencies as Applied to Magnetic Recording, Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers, Vol. 32, pp. 664-668 (November, 1944). 39. Wooldridge, D. E., Signal and Noise Levels in Magnetic Tape Record- ing, Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Vol. 65, pp. 343-352 (1946). Phosphor Storage 40. du Pont, E. I., de Nemours & Co., Inc., Bibliography — Phosphorescence and Phosphorescent Sulfides, special report prepared in connection with research under Contract No. W3G-039-SC-32256 (Feb. 16, 1948). 41. Moore, Benjamin L., Magnetic and Phosphor Coated Discs, Annals of the Computation Laboratory of Harvard University, Vol. XVI, pp. 130- 132 (1948). Sonic-delay-line Storage 42. Arenberg, D. L., Ultrasonic Solid Delay Lines, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 20, pp. 1-26 (January, 1948). 43. Hunting, H. B., A. G. Emslies, and V. W. Hughes, Ultrasonic Delay Lines, Parts I and II, Journal of the Franklin Institute, Vol. 245, pp. 1-24, 101-115 (January and February, 1948). 44. Knott, G. C, Reflexion and Refraction of Elastic Waves with Seis- mological Application, Philosophical Magazine, Vol. 48, Series 5, pp. 64-97 (July, 1899). 45. Macelwane and Sohon, Introduction to Theoretical Seismology (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1932, 1936). 2 vols. 46. Metz, F. A., Jr., and W. M. A. Andersen, Improved Ultrasonic Delay Lines, Electronics, Vol. 22, No. 7, pp. 96-100 (July, 1949). 47. Ridenour, L. N., Radar System Engineering (McGraw-Hill Book Com- pany, Inc., New York, 1947), pp. 667-677. 48. Ringo, G. R., J. W. Fitzgerald, and B. G. Hurdle, Propagation of U.H.F. Sound in Mercury, Physical Review, Vol. 72, No. 1, pp. 87-88 (July, 1947). 49. Sharpless, T. Kite, Mercury Delay Lines as a Memory Unit, Annals of the Computation Laboratory of Harvard University, Vol. XVI, pp. 103-109 (1948). 50. Sharpless, T. Kite, Design of Mercury Delay Lines, Electronics, Vol. 20, No. 11, pp. 134-138 (November, 1947). Electromagnetic-delay-line Storage 51. Blewett, J. P., and J. H. Rubel, Video Delay Lines, Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers, Vol. 35, No. 12, pp. 1580-1584 (December, 1947). 52. Brillouin, Leon N., Electromagnetic Delay Lines, Annals of the Com- putation Laboratory of Harvard University, Vol. XVI, pp. 110-124 (1948). 53. Kallmann, Heinz E., High-Impedance Cable, Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers, Vol. 34, No. 6, pp. 348-351 (June, 1946). 54. Kallmann, Heinz E., Equalized Delay Lines, Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers, Vol. 34, No. 9, pp. 646-657 (September, 1946). 55. Montgomery, Dicke, and Purcell, Principles of Microwave Circuits, Radiation Laboratory Series (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1948), pp. 203-206. 56. Rudenberg, Rheinhold, Electromagnetic Waves in Transformer Coils Treated by Maxwell's Equations, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. XII, pp. 219-229 (March, 1941). 57. Slater, J. C, Microwave Transmission (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1942). 58. Trevor, J. B., Jr., Artificial Delay Line Design, Electronics, Vol. 18, No. 6, p. 135 (June, 1945). 59. Zimmerman, K. H., Spiral Delay Lines, Electrical Communications, Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 327-328 (September, 1946). Electrostatic Storage 60. Forrester, J. W., Electrostatic Storage Tubes, MIT Servomechanisms Laboratory Report No. 6845-R-110 (Jan. 13, 1947). 61. Forrester, J. W., Electrostatic Storage Tubes for Digital Computers and other Information-Processing Systems, MIT Servomechanisms Labora- tory Report No. R-153 (Jan. 26, 1949). 62. Forrester, J. W., High-Speed Electrostatic Storage, Annals of the Com- putation Laboratory of Harvard University, Vol. XVI, pp. 125-129 (1948). 63. Haeff, A. V., The Memory Tube and Its Application to Electronic Computation, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Vol. Ill, No. 24, pp. 281-286 (October, 1948). 64. Haeff, A. V., A Memory Tube, Electronics, Vol. 20, No. 9, pp. 80-83 (September, 1947). 65. Williams, F. C, and T. Kilburn, A Storage System for Use with Binary- Digital Computing Machines, Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Part III, pp. 81-100 (March, 1949). 66. Unsigned, An Image Storage Tube, Electronics, Vol. 21, No. 5, pp. 132-134 (May, 1948). 67. Zworykin, V. K., and G. A. Morton, Television (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1940), p. 326. The Selectron 68. Rajchman, Jan A., The Selectron — A Tube for Selective Electrostatic Storage, Annals of the Computation Laboratory of Harvard University, Vol. XVI, pp. 133-135 (1948). 69. Rajchman, Jan A., The Selectron — A Tube for Selective Electrostatic Storage, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Vol. 2, pp. 359-361 (October, 1947). 70. Rajchman, Jan A., The Selectron — A Tube for Selective Electrostatic Storage, RCA Laboratories Division News, Vol. 6, No. 2 (August, 1949). A paper presented at the IRE Tube Conference at Princeton University in June, 1949, and also at the Symposium on Large-Scale Digital Com- puting Machinery at Harvard University in September, 1949. Transfer in Space 71. Bode, Hendrick W., Network Analysis and Feedback Amplifier Design (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., New York, 1945). 72. Hansen, W. W., Maximum Gain Bandwidth Product in Amplifiers, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 16, pp. 528-534 (September, 1945). 73. Page, C. II., Digital Computer Switching Circuits, Electronics, Vol. 21, No. 9, pp. 110-118 (September, 1948). 74. Rubinoff, Morris, An Input Device Using Multiple Gates, Annals of the Computation Laboratory of Harvard University, Vol. XVI, pp. 254-259 (1948). 75. Terman, F. E., Radio Engineering (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1947). 76. Wheeler, H. A., Wide Band Amplifiers For Television, Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers, Vol. 27, pp. 429-438 (July, 1939). Coincidence Circuits 77. Bay, Z., and G. Papp, Coincidence Device of 10 -8 — 10~ 9 Second Resolving Power, Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 19, No. 9, pp. 565-567 (September, 1948). 78. Dickie, R. H., A High Speed Coincidence Circuit, Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 18, pp. 907-914 (December, 1947). 79. Hofstadter, R., and J. Mclntyre, Note on the Detection of Coincidences and Short Time Intervals, Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 52-53 (January, 1950).CHAPTER 15 DATA-CONVERSION EQUIPMENT

Mechanical Counters 1. Bush, V., A New Type of Differential Analyzer, Journal of the Franklin Institute, Vol. 240, No. 4, pp. 292-295 (October, 1945). 2. Murray, F. J., The Theory of Mathematical Machines (King's Crown Press, New York, 1948), pp. I-1-I-9. Film-type Converters 3. Jones, F. D., Ingenious Mechanisms for Designers and Inventors, (Indus- trial Press, New York, 1936), Vol. I, pp. 71-77, Vol. II, pp. 164-188. Pulse Code Modulation 4. Black, H. S., and J. O. Edson, Pulse Code Modulation, Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Vol. 66, pp. 895-899 (1947). 5. Carbrey, R. L., Decoding in P. CM., Bell Laboratories Record, Vol. XXVI, No. 11, pp. 451-455 (November, 1948). 6. Goodall, W. M., Telephony by Pulse Code Modulation, Bell System Technical Journal, Vol. XXVI, No. 3, pp. 395-409 (July, 1947). 7. Greig, D. D., Pulse-Count Modulation, Electrical Communications, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 287-296 (September, 1946). 8. Meachan, L. A., and E. Peterson, An Experimental Multi-Channel Pulse Code Modulation System of Toll Quality, Bell System Technical Journal, Vol. XXVII, pp. 1-43 (January, 1948). 9. Oliver, B. M., J. R. Pierce, and C. E. Shannon, The Philosophy of Pulse Code Modulation, Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers, Vol. 36, No. 11, pp. 1324-1331 (November, 1948). 10. Sears, R. W., Electric Beam Deflection Tube for Pulse Code Modula- tion, Bell System Technical Journal, Vol. XXVII, pp. 44-57 (January, 1948). 11. Unsigned, Coded Pulse Modulation Minimizes Noise, Electronics, Vol. 20, No. 12, pp. 126-131 (December, 1947). Rotation Converters 12. Brown, G. S., and D. P. Campbell, Principles of Servomechanisms (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1948). 13. Bush, V., A New Type of Differential Analyzer, Journal of the Franklin Institute, Vol. 240, No. 4, pp. 292-295 (October, 1945). 14. Hall, A. C, Applications of Circuit Theory to the Design of Servo- mechanisms, Journal of the Franklin Institute, Vol. 242, No. 2, pp. 279-307 (October, 1946). 15. Sobczyk, Andrew, Stabilization of Carrier Frequency Servomechanisms, Journal of the Franklin Institute, Vol. 246, No. 1, Nos. 2 and 3; Part I: pp. 21-43; Part II: pp. 95-121; Part III: pp. 187-213 (July, August, September, 1948). Conversion of Data from Written to Automatic Digital Form 16. Bush, G. L., Photoelectric Transmitting Typewriter, Electronics, Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 96-99 (April, 1947). 17. Dudley, H., Remaking Speech, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 11, p. 169 (May, 1939). 18. Dvorak, A., There Is a Better Typewriter Keyboard, National Business Education Quarterly, Vol. XII, No. 2, pp. 51-58 and 66 (December, 1943). 19. Hasley, R. J., and J. Swaffield, Analysis Synthesis Telephony with Special Reference to the Vocoder, Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Vol. 95, Part III, pp. 391-410 (September, 1948). 20. Watson, E. F., Fundamentals of Teletypewriters Used in the Bell System, Bell System Technical Journal, Vol. 17, pp. 620-639 (October, 1938). Conversion of Data from Written to Automatic Analog Form 21. Greenwood, Holdam, and MacRae, Electronic Instruments, Radiation Laboratory Series (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1948), pp. 362-372. 22. Hazen, H. L., J. J. Jaeger, and G. S. Brown, Automatic Curve Follower, Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 7, pp. 353-357 (September, 1936). 23. Walther, A., Development of Mathematical Instruments in Germany 1939-1945 (translated by British Naval Gunnery Mission). Pamphlet. Transcription from Automatic Digital to Written Numerical Form 24. Burnett, C. E., The Monoscope, RCA Review, Vol. 2, pp. 414-420 (April, 1938). 25. Fuller, Harrison W., The Numeroscope, Annals of the Computation Laboratory of Harvard University, Vol. XVI, pp. 238-247 (1948). 26. Fuller, H. W., Numeroscope for Cathode Ray Printing, Electronics, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 98-102 (February, 1948). 27. Mansbcrg, II. P., A New, Versatile Camera for the Cathode Ray Oscillo- graph, Oscillographer, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 6-8 (October-December, 1948). 28. Sparks, S., and R. G. Kreer, Tape Relay System for Radio-Telegraph Operation, RCA Review, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 393-426 (September, 1947). 29. Zworykin, V. K., and G. A. Morton, Television (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1940), p. 327. Transcription from Automatic Analog to Written Form 30. Kane, J. L., Conversion of Brown Recorder, unpublished report (Douglas Aircraft Co., Inc., El Segundo, Calif., September, 1947). Radix Converters 31. Mauchly, John W., Theory and Techniques for the Design of Electronic Digital Computers, Vol. Ill (Moore School of Electrical Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, June, 1948), pp. 25-1-25-8. Speed-changing Devices 32. Alexander, S. N., Input and Output Devices for Electronic Digital Computing Machinery, Annals of the Computation Laboratory of Harvard University, Vol. XVI, pp. 248-253 (1948). 33. Alt, F. L., A Bell Telephone Laboratories Computing Machine, Mathe- matical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Vol. Ill, No. 21, pp. 1-13 (January, 1948). 34. Sheppard, C. Bradford, Transfer between External and Internal Memory, Annals of the Computation Laboratory of Harvard University, Vol. XVI, pp. 267-273 (1948).

CHAPTER 16 SPECIAL TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT FOR POSSIBLE USE IN COMPUTING SYSTEMS

Reliability of Components

1. Brotherton, M., Capacitors (D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., New York, 1946), pp. 45-55. 2. Eckert, J., Jr., Reliability of Parts in Theory and Techniques for the Design of Digital Computers, Vol. II (Moore School of Electrical Engi- neering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 1948), pp. 20-1- 20-13. 3. Michael, F. R., Tube Failures in ENIAC, Electronics, Vol. 20, No. 10, pp. 116-119 (October, 1947). 4. Radio Corporation of America, Special Red Tubes (RCA Tube Depart- ment, Harrison, N.J., 1948). Pamphlet. Possibilities for Checking 5. Alexander, S. N., Input and Output Devices for Electronic Digital Calcu- lating Machinery, Annals of the Computation Laboratory of Harvard University, Vol. XVI, pp. 248-253 (1948). 6. Bloch, R. M., R. V. D. Campbell, and M. Ellis, The Logical Design of the Raytheon Computer, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Com- putation, Vol. Ill, No. 24, pp. 286-295 (October, 1948). 7. Eckert, J. P., Jr., Reliability and Checking in Theory and Techniques for the Design of Digital Computers, Vol. IV (Moore School of Electrical Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 1948), pp. 35-1-35-16. 8. Williams, S. B., Reliability and Checking in Digital Computing Systems in Theory and Techniques for the Design of Digital Computers, Vol. IV (Moore School of Electrical Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 1948), pp. 34-1-34-16. 9. Williams, S. B., Bell Telephone Laboratories Relay Computing System, Annals of the Computation Laboratory of Harvard University, Vol. XVI, pp. 41-53 (1948). Size, Cost, and Speed 10. Sheppard, C. B., Transfer between External and Internal Memory, Annals of the Computation Laboratory of Harvard University, Vol. XVI, pp. 267-271 (1948).

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