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Ray Girvan

That's got a term I never ran into: "coal clives". A quick look in Google Books and the OED finds "clives" to be a variant plural of "cliff", as an archaic term for the strata of rock adjoining coal seams:

4. The strata of rock lying above or between coal seams.

1721 R. Bradley Philos. Acct. Wks. Nature 7 A dark or blackish Rock, which they call the Coal Clives..The Cliff over this Vein is variegated with Cockle Shells and Fern Branches.

John F. Ptak

Thanks so much, Ray--you always have an interesting insight and perspective.

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