*Journal of the Franklin Institute,* Philadelphia, Vol 8 (new series) vol 12 overall, July-December 1831, with text illustrations. 430, 8 pp., and one folding plate. Half-calf, with raised bands. Ex-library, with some scuffing on the spine and leather cover tips; front joint sprung though binding still tight; also a few stamps on the title page. In Solid GOOD condition. $250

The highlight in this volume is the appearance of a very early mention of the Charles Babbage having built his Difference Engine (No. 1), found in a one-paragraph mention in the article “The Results of Machinery”, located on pp 55-64:

“Mr. Babbage...has invented a calculating machine...” states the article--this refers to the newly (1832) “completed” a 1/7^{th} model of the machine. (The Difference Engine No. 0 announcement came June 14, 1822; the Difference Engine No. 1 appeared in this year, 1832, though work was suspended on it in 1833 (with government funding removed);'work soon to begin on Difference Engine No.2 (1846-9), (and with A. Lovelace's famous “Notes” appearing on the Analytical Engine in 1843).

This is a review/abstract of the book by Charles Knight, *The results of machinery *which appeared in a second edition in London in 1831 (and a fifth in 1832) with a first American appearing in 1831. The Babbage calculating machine bit from the *JFI *is taken very nearly verbatim from these editions, where in edition the original mention of the machine is referred to as “almost perfected”--here in the *JFI* it shows up as “completed”. Curious.

The full note on Babbage reads:

“The inventions for saving mental labour, in calculations of arithmetic, have been carried so far, that Mr. Babbage, a gentleman whose name we have twice before mentioned, has invented a calculating machine, which not only does its work of calculation without the possibility of error, but absolutely arranges printing types of figures, in a frame, so that no error can be produced in copying the calculations, before they are printed. We mention this curious machine, to show how far

science may go in diminishing mental labour, and ensuring accuracy.”

This was part and parcel the principle thrust of this article: investigating the application of machinery in a positive way to production and labor and showing its “...effects of saving unproitable labor”.

Also: James Espy, “Observations on the importance of Meteorological Observations, particularly in regards to the Dew Point”, pp 389-406. Walter Johnson, “Description of an apparatus, called the Rotascope...illustrating certain laws of rotary motion”, pp 361-366G. Moll, “On the First Invention of Telescopes”, pp 41-50; “remarks on the construction and peculiarities...Liverpool and Manchester rail-way, from Wood's Treatise on Rail-roads”, pp 271-276. Numerous articles on water power, steam, supercharged steam, paper making, boilers, generating gas, steam boiler explosions, new mode of constructing harbors, and much else.

The few paragraphs of background leading to the Babbage reads as follows:

“The foot-rule of the carpenter not only gives him the standard of a foot measure, which he could not exactly ascertain by any experience or any mental process; but it is also a scale of the proportions of an inch or several inches, to a foot, and of the parts of an inch to an inch. What a quantity of calculations, and of dividing by compasses does this little instrument save the carpenter, besides ensuring a much greater degree of accuracy in all his operations!The common rules of arithmetic, which almost every boy in England now learns, are parts of a great invention for saving mental labour. The higher branches of mathematics, of which science arithmetic is a portion, are also inventions for saving labour, and for doing what could never be done without these inventions.

There are instruments, and very curious ones, for lessening the labour of all arithmetical calculations; and tables—that is, the results of certain calculations, which are practical use, are constructed for the same purpose. When you buy a joint of meat, you often see the butcher turn to a little book, before he tells you how much a certain number of pounds and ounces amounts to, at a certain price per pound. . This book is his “Ready Reckoner,” and a very useful book it is to him; for it enables him to despatch his customers in half the time that it would otherwise require, and thus to save himself a great deal of labour, and a great deal of inaccuracy.

The inventions for saving mental labour, in calculations of arithmetic, have been carried so far, that Mr. Babbage, a gentleman whose name we have twice before mentioned, has invented a calculating machine, which not only does its work of calculation without the possibility of error, but absolutely arranges printing types of figures, in a frame, so that no error can be produced in copying the calculations, before they are printed. We mention this curious machine, to show how far

science may go in diminishing mental labour, and ensuring accuracy.”