Güttinger , P. (1932). "Das Verhalten von Atomen im magnetischen Drehfeld". In: Zeitschrift* für Physik, *vol 73 (3–4), pp 169–184 in the issue of pp 139-280. Original wrappers. Lovely copy.

This is Niels Bohr's copy, with his name printed at the top right. $500

“The Hellmann-Feynman theorem has an illustrious albeit somewhat complicated lineage, which includes three Nobel Laureates. The key relationship was reported by Schrödinger in one of his landmark 1926 papers, by Güttinger [who took his Ph.D. at ETH Zurich under Scherrer and Pauli in 1932] in 1932 and by both Pauli and Hellmann in 1933. Feynman presented it, apparently independently, in 1939. It was Hellmann and Feynman who arrived separately at one of the best known consequences of the theorem, which is presumably why their names are attached to it. Over the years, the approval rating of the Hellmann-Feynman theorem has fluctuated wildly. In a 1945 paper, Coulson and Bell concluded that it was invalid; however, Berlin rescued it in 1951...He also showed how the theorem could be used to obtain insight into bonding forces in molecules, an approach that Bader et al. followed successfully a few years later. In 1962, Wilson used the theorem to derive an exact formula for molecular energies. Nevertheless, Musher claimed in 1966 that many find the theorem to be “too trivial to merit the term ‘theorem’”. Yet only six years later, no less an authority than Slater proclaimed the Hellmann-Feynman theorem to be one of the “two most powerful theorems applicable to molecules and solids”, the other being the virial theorem.”--Politzer, P., Murray, J.S. "The Hellmann-Feynman theorem: a perspective", *J Mol Model* 24, 266 (2018).

“In quantum mechanics, the Hellmann–Feynman theorem relates the derivative of the total energy with respect to a parameter, to the expectation value of the derivative of the Hamiltonian with respect to that same parameter. According to the theorem, once the spatial distribution of the electrons has been determined by solving the Schrödinger equation, all the forces in the system can be calculated using classical electrostatics. The theorem has been proven independently by many authors, including Paul Güttinger (1932), Wolfgang Pauli (1933), Hans Hellmann (1937), and Richard Feynman (1939) [The Feynman contribution appears in his first published paper, “Forces in Molecules”, in the *PR* in 1939.

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