A Daily History of Holes, Dots, Lines, Science, History, Math, the Unintentional Absurd & Nothing |1.6 million words, 7500 images, 4 million hits| Press & appearances in The Times, Le Figaro, MENSA, The Economist, The Guardian, Discovery News, Slate, Le Monde, Sci American Blogs, Le Point, and many other places... 4,200+ total posts
I found this in the files this evening, a cartoon from Harper's Weekly from October 26, 1861, from when the Civil War was but half a year old or so and there was still three and a half years of fighting to go. This was a modest suggestion on what to do with female traitors--the sections are pretty self-explanatory, and I've provided a transcription for them if difficult to read in the original:
"Let them See but not touch all the latest novelties in Hats, Dry Goods, etc."
"Send them to the Alms House to nurse refractory babies"
"Have the fashionable intelligence read in their hearing to their intense aggravation"
"Make them wear very unfashionable uniform as e.g. the above"
"Let them do Housework under the Superintendence of Biddy"
I'm not sure that I've ever seen a list of the personal daily cost of antique drug use, though I did manage to stumble across one in a remarkable little pamphlet by Edward C. Jandy called Narcotic Addiction as a Factor in Petty Larcency in Detroit (published by the Narcotic Committee of the Wayne County Medical Society, et al. in November 1937). There's a lot packed into its 23 pages, not the least of which is a pretty sophisticated look at how to examine the costs of drug addiction to the sales economy of that city.
One of the interesting historical bits that emerges from it is a list of the daily cost of the addiction of one of the target study groups--a selection of 43 local addicts with a combined 673 years of addiction (averaging an unholy 15.5 years of addiction/person). There are immediate limitations to this info--for example there is no correlation to the number of years of addiction to the individually-reported daily drug costs--but since this data seems to be fairly rare it does at least give some idea of the strain of usage per person. And what does it mean to spend $5/day on your heroin habit? CPI is useful, but it is better to look at what that figure means in terms of the average salary and costs of basic goods. If you were working back there in a bad spot of the Depression in 1937 the average salary was about $1,700/year, which means that if these addicts were working (and the great majority wasn't) then they would be spending about 1/3% of their annual income per day--or a little more than all of their daily salary--on their everyday habit.
Spending $1,800 a year on drugs on a $1,700 salary leaves not-so-much-room for anything else but crime, and not having any income at all would mean that all of that money would have to be from criminal activities. In another (potentially gross) way of thinking about this expense is by looking at the average salary in 1937 being about 1/30th of what the average American family income is in 2012, so the daily $5 heroin hit would be something like $150 today, which sounds about right. And if you applied that multiplier to some other standard 1937 prices, the numbers are fairly constant from then to now--the big exception being postage stamps (which would be $1.50 for a first class stamp) and gasoline ($6/gallon), both of which would show a decline. Again, that's a very crude approximation, but it does pause. The author then does some tricky and interesting semi-statistical work with the bottom line showing that drug addicts stole a total of about 3% of the total retail sales (of $545 million) in the U.S. That's a big number--in today's economy, which currently stands at about $33 billion in thefts (or 1.5%) that would 3% for just addicts would be an enormous number, twice the national general total which would spike drug losses at $100 billion for theft alone. I'm thinking that these 1937 stats might be a little (or a lot) loose, but it the report still is decently argued and nicely presented though the data might be not-great--and the daily/habit numbers are a fine thing to find.
The desegregation of the executive department and the U.S. Army began under Harry Truman in 1948, which for the military was formalized in the Army Reorganization Act of 1950, which called for the end of the need for segregated armed forces. Following the disaster in the Korean War in late 1950 (the Chinese Counteroffensive causing the retreat of U.N. forces south of the Yalu River in November 1950), and finding it difficult to replace soldiers with nothing but white fighting men, the Army began to integrate fighting units by March 1951. The ORO instituted a study in 1951 by a team of five analysts headed by Dr. Alfred Hausrath (a war games researcher) to study the effects of integration, part of which was published in the report "Utilization of Negro Manpower in the Army"1, with the full three-volume publication of the study coming slightly later in 1954. (Two earlier interim reports were issued in July and December 1951.) Basically, after everything was said and done, the Hausrath and his team found that integrated units work much better than segregated units.
The report "provided policymakers in the Army with the objective arguments in favor of integrated units", and the policy changes for full integration of the Army were issued jsut months after this report was rendered, in July 1951. This document was printed for the first time in a general format for OR folks in 1953. (The term "landmark" was used to describe this paper in Saul Gass' An Annotated Timeline of Operations Research, an Informal History, page 80.)
Abstract: "In connection with a basic policy decision by the Army in 1951 on the utilization of Negro manpower, a partly quantitative operations research study was made. Factors affecting the decision to integrate Negroes into previously all-white. Army units included statistics of scores on the Army's General Classification Test, Negro and white performance in combat, and interactions between Negro and white soldiers as determined from attitudes, opinions, critical incidents, and actual behavior. It is concluded that integrated (white and Negro) units can make more effective use of available manpower than segregated units, that resistance to integration is reduced as experience in integrated units is gained, and that levels of 20 per cent Negroes and more are acceptable. The time required to extend integration to the whole Army is discussed, and difficulties presented in such a manner that a sound program can be devised." --Operations Research, Informs/Online
1. HAUSRATH, Alfred H. "Utilization of Negro Manpower in the Army." Informal Seminar in Operations Research, 1952-1953, Seminar Paper No. 27. The Johns Hopkins University Operations Research Office (ORO), Baltimore, May 13, 1953.
"Alfred Hausrath, the one-time director of military gaming for the Research Analysis Corporation (RAC), the successor civilian contractor for the Army, recounted the details of a little known simulation developed at the ORO in 1948. (The simulation also served as a model for a Naval anti-aircraft guided missile system.) Staff members of the Applied Physics Laboratory at the Johns Hopkins University worked in conjunction with the ORO in its design. What resulted was a computer game. Hausrath asserted that its successor model, a study of the air defense of North America, which was inaugurated in 1953, was the first computer simulation in the history of operations research. ORO also originated the first digital computer game, CARMONETTE I, (played from 1956-60.)"--this from the very interesting StrategyPage https://www.strategypage.com/wargames/articles/wargame_articles_20049715.asp#_ftn43
When I saw the cover for this pamphlet I thought that the "Human Engineering Laboratory" was going to be some sort of Frederick Winslow Taylor thing. It is a little late for that wave of interest (printed in 1939) and then when I saw the imprint (Stevens Institute of Technology) I realized it was going to be something different. And it was--instead of Fordian/Randian/Taylorist functioing of workers this pamphlet turned out to be about vocational aptitude tests. I guess if one thought too hard about this it could fit into the category of the pre-history of robotics in the robots' history of themselves, the test trying to assess where people will best fit into the giant machinery of society.
In the outline of services the pamphlet notes that each test-taker will be charged a $20 fee for the service, plus $10 if the test was taken a second or third time. That was a stiff fee--according to the inflation calculator at the Bureau of Labor Statistics that 20 bucks has the buying power of $321 today--but I guess it may have been worth it to take a peek into the future to see what best thing you might be suited for. Still, that was a lot of money at the end of the Depression to pay for someone to fit you into a grid.
I'm posting this mostly because of the great title.
It also reminds me of another title, though this one is Outsider-y:
This is a photo of a tiny piece of the army behind the army--in this case women preparing clothing for the British Expeditionary Force in 1918. The trousers that they are handling in this image represent--in an offhand calculation--about one one hundred thousandth of one percent of the trousers that just the BEF would have worn. .00001, or some such number. When the photograph was made in late 1918, the U.K. had about four million men in uniform, which was not the total of all those who served; in the end, nearly 2.6 million U.K. soldiers were killed or wounded from 1914-1918. It took millions of people in a vast coordinated effort to support a n army of this size, and so far away.
Source: part of the 500+ image collection of news photo service photographs, many of which would have the paper description attached to the image for inclusion as a caption to the image when it was published in a magazine or newspaper.
There are of course many popular delusions and crazes that have swept through common cultures for centuries: tulipomania, the South Sea Bubble, miniature golf, Charlie Chaplin, and so on--ideas and bits that somehow became infused into the outer core of societal interest and dug in like a nasty virus, running itself high-octane silly until the gross comical interest ran itself out, leaving the craze to drop and deflate like a dropped-and-deflated craze. Two such pursuits were found illustrated just now in the 1879 volume of Punch, or the London Charivari (printed in London in that year), with the illustrations created by Linley Sambourne, a graphic artist who started at teh satirical weekly in 1867 and stayed for another 43 years.
The first image--though it looked like a baseball and momentarily filled me with hope--regards the tennis craze that evidently was sweeping the country. I say this because there were numerous mentions and illustrations of the topsy-turvey tennis fascination in that 1879 volume, while tennis is virtually absent from succeeding volumes. Anyway Sambourne effectively demonstrates the domination of the sport over, well, a lot of other things:
Ditto the umbrella--there was a lot of fuss about it in this volume, reaching a high point perhaps with this illustration of the thing reaching its highest state of perfection: allowing people to fly:
G. Sudiene's Le Communisme Stalien en France certainly has a great piece of design for its cover. The pamphlet was printed--it looks like--in May 1945, right at the time of the Allied victory in Europe. By this time Stalin had bullied his way halfway across eastern Europe and certainly was no longer the friendly face of an ally as it may or may not have been in 1942/3. In any event, I found it interesting that while thumbing my way through the pamphlet I bumped into a section heading called "La Grande Peur des Communistes Staliens", which uses the intellectually-straightening phrase, "the Great Fear" or "the Great Terror". I'm familiar with the phrase mostly because of the title of the 1968 Robert Conquest book, and so far as I can recall I hadn't encountered it much during the contemporary-ish time in which the plague of terror was occurring. This one comes close, coming six years or so after the end of that particular piece tragedy (the Great Terror ranging from 1936-1938 in Conquest's book). In this pamphlet this period is expanded to 1933-1939. I couldn't find anything about the author in a quick-search, and the pamphlet itself nearly escapes mention. (On the other hand I did see the phrase "judeo-Comministe", which is usually meaning "Jewish Bolshevism", which is a standard and long-established piece of anti-Semitic propaganda, though I didn't see anything in the text to support it...that's a pretty big bomb to drop, though, on an unsuspecting reader.
JF Ptak Science Books Post 2655 (Honestly I've lost track of the full posts and the 2000 or so unnumbered "Quick Posts", though this is close to being correct.)
No doubt that when these photos were made the working conditions, equipment, and so on were at least "standard" issue--nothing too fancy, nothing too crowded, nothing too dirty, nothing too rough, nothing too grubby. The overall sense of the series of images though is definitely Grub Street. The photos were made for the pamphlet The Party Press, 1900-1904 which celebrated the first and at the time only Socialist daily newspaper the "Daily People"1, and showed the guts and glory of the Beast. It all seems rather tatty, and soiled, and threadbare, and cramped, and probably very oily--all of this was either offset or enhanced by the fact that the newspaper was located in several floors of "a" but not "the" Flat Iron Building.
This is the back cover for a little pamphlet celebrating the Social Labor Party's daily newspaper, The Daily People, the front being not nearly as well designed:
It is a little difficult to read, but there is an idiom ringing the arm and hammer: "You have nothing to lose but your chains, you have a world to gain; workingmen of all countries unite!" This is derived from a similar quote in the Marx and Engels Communist Manifesto where it is better said. In any event, it is a pretty good and striking design.
And of course the non- Flat Iron Building, here photographed without elan as just some other building:
1. "The devotion the sacrifices the work in behalf of the maintenance of the Daily People will forever remain the brightest day in the life of the party. On the day of its birth after a march through the streets several hundred comrades waited until four o clock in the morning to receive the first copy of the paper the first and in fact the only Socialist daily ever published in the English language. The building situated at 2 6 New Reade street the birthplace of the Daily People was torn down several years ago. The party members named it the Daily People Flatiron Building and it saw many of the struggles that followed the ones of 1899. All party institutions were housed in this building. The basement was used by the mechanical department the ground floor by the Labor News Company the party's literature agency while the third floor was occupied by the editorial rooms. On the top floor were the offices of the national secretary also of Section New York and the national office of the Socialist Trade and Labor Alliance."--from Daniel DeLeon, a Symposium, published by the Socialist Labor Party, New York, 1919
As impossibly busy as Charles Dickens was--and this mostly throughout the course of his writing life--there was always something else going on for him beyond that tirelessly-busy stage. He always seemed to have time, too, even beyond all of this, to help people in need, physically and through his words. Dickens' interest and care for the poor, the working class, the sick, the abandoned, the beggars, the children, exposing them to the reading public, expressing care and understanding and sympathy, is perhaps unmatched in the 19th century.
I found this piece--new to me--in Dickens' edited ("conducted") Household Words, in the March 13, 1852 issue. It discusses the concept of the "Ragged School" in Dickens' visit to the Field Lane Ragged School, an institution for educating all-comers, including the homeless, the indigent, the sick, abandoned children, all done for free by volunteer teachers.
I wanted to reproduce the Household Words article, below.
There's a fine article explaining the ragged school available at the British Library site, here: https://www.bl.uk/romantics-and-victorians/articles/ragged-schools
Another--cleaner--version of the Household Words article appears on the site Infed, here: http://www.infed.org/archives/e-texts/dickens_a_sleep_to_startle_us.htm
Surfacing today in the warehouse was a collection of papers, all bound together punch-bound in a makeshift manila binding, all on the subject of mechanization and its impact on the migrant worker, and all from 1936-1938 or so.It was the mechanization of farming chores following the recession after WWI which contributed to over-farming and over-production of farming land, and that, combined with with this soil erosion with drought, contributed to the Dust Bowl and the vast migration of the Great Depression.
Among the papers on new farm implements and the millions of people on the move was “The Child in the Migratory Camp—Health”, by Edward J. Rowell, a slim but telling four pages on the plight of kids in migrant camps. This paper was published in California Children, Sept 1938, pp 1-4, and is referenced in James Noble Gregory, American Exodus: The Dust Bowl Migration and Okie Culture in California, p 289. It is a very sobering read, and I reproduce it below in full as there are but a few references to it.
[As one migrant child told John Steinbeck, "When they need us they call us migrants, and when we've picked their crop, we're bums and we got to get out" (Steinbeck, "Harvest Gypsies" 1. after his In Dubious Battle, a work that deals with the migrant worker and which was published in 1936, Steinbeck was given an assignment and space to further document the situation of the mobile workers in the San Francisco News, the stories appearing October 5-12, 1936. These seven articles were later published together—along with 22 photographs by Dorothea Lange—in a work called Their Blood is Strong, appearing in 1938.)]
I've uncovered today a small packet of mimneographed publications from a famous labor/civil rights school in the mountains of Tennessee. The Highlander School in Monteagle, Tennessee, was a training/leadership/educational center founded in 1932 for Southern labor activists and, later in the 1950's, a training center for civil rights activists. One of the categories that this post has been filed in is "A History of Blank, Empty, and Missing Things" but really only for the document displayed below, which is an unfilled-in form for attending one of the sessions at the school--there's a curious collection of such things here, from naval sea logs to Nazi diaries for Warsaw and other such things. It is an interesting experience to look at such a blank-filled document, a document that doesn't bear someone else's marks and expectations, and imagine your own answers to it, unencumbered.
The letterhead on one of the publications including the governing body of Highlander, including the well-known names of Dombrowski, Myles Horton, and Zilphia Mae Horton--that last name is probably familiar because of her work in folk/civil rights music like her reworked versions of "Keep Your Eyes on the Prize," "We Shall Not Be Moved," and "This Little Light of Mine", and then most famously (with Pete Seeger, Frank Hamilton, and Guy Carawan) on "We Shall Overcome".
Also from the group I've included scans (on the left, below) of a summary of what the Highlander School was (in 1942), and then (at right) the covering title and art for the May 1942 "Southern Workers School).
I can't recall seeing Adolf Hitler portrayed in an editorial/political cartoon as being part of a race riot in the U.S., though it does make sense, and also makes for a very strong message. The artist here--Bernard Seaman--was a busy guy working for labor and social organizations like the ILGWU (International Ladies' Garment Workers Union) and newspapers like the superb leftie PM, and he chose Hitler to exemplify the great divisive wrong in U.S. society, "the foul blot upon our best American traditions..." and quote President Roosevelt to underline it all: "Remember the Nazi technique: pit race against race; religion against religion; prejudice against prejudice; divide and conquer".
This image appears in a pamphlet without a clear, recognizable title, and was published ca. 1943/4.
I came upon a reference to hanging an unconscious man sentenced to death in a roller-coaster presentation of a pamphlet called Legalized Murder, "Thou shalt Not Kill"1 (or thereabouts). It is the work of Dr. C.T. Riley (of New Matamoras, Ohio), and the "thereabouts" title is on the front cover of the pamphlet, and there is no title page per se, so the title may this or something else (like walking into someone else's conversation mid-way and needing to title it). It is, well, a highly individualized work, very vehemently against the death penalty, citing scripture and medicine and law and just about anything that Dr. Riley could get his hands on, while on occasion slipping in an advertisement for his medical practice and Gall Stone Cure. He is very passionate, and though his arguments seem very disjointed to me, when approached on the paragraph level he can make a very convincing argument.
What was remarkable to me in this pamphlet was the cover illustration, which shows a hangman about to fix a noose around the neck of an unconscious man tied to a chair and placed on the scaffold's trap door. The livid caption identifies the execution of "Church of Chicago" but so far as I can tell the subject is not again mentioned in the pamphlet. A little research reveals that this was a Mr. Harvey Church, who murdered two men to steal a $1500 Packard, and who was sentenced to death for his crime in 1922. It turns out that Church was a "dementia praecox catatonia", and forty days before his execution, he entered a catatonic state.
There is a remarkable report by an unnamed physician published in the Journal of the American Judicature Society, to Promote the Efficient Administration of Justice, vol 7/2, August 1923,documenting the condition of Church "in the death chamber". He of course was completely unresponsive, impervious in reaction to pain; the doctor reported clenched fingers and toes that were so cramped together that the doctor could not move them using all of his strength; nor could he part Church's lips, except after exertion, and them only revealing the top teeth. Here is most of what the doctor reported:
This is the state in which Church was sent to the gallows.
This case was probably enough to force a discourse on the issue of capital punishment. I knew that there was extreme treatment like this of people with similar disorders--epileptics for example were treated far more harshly than the general population--and in general pleas were made for sterilization of people with a wide range of disorders as well as the establishment of "colonies" for the rest of that population. Hanging the unconscious (if that is what Mr. Church was) was something I had never heard of before.
1. C.T. Riley, Legalized Murder, "Thou shalt Not Kill, printed by the Baptist Banner, Parkersburg, West Virginia, 1930 (third edition), 69pp.
Here's an uncommon book, referenced in a very obscure publication, written by a politician and operative whose time had come and gone, and from a library that did not exist to the public. Andre Marty's Pour liberer le Patrie des Armes our la France, Confiance en le peuple. ("For the Liberation of the Homeland, ARMS for France/Have Trust in its People") is a small publication made from an address made by him on 25 July 1944, one month exactly before the liberation of Paris. It was incendiary and was not of course printed in Nazi-occupied France; rather it was printed at Editions Liberte, in the still-safe Algiers. Marty (1886-1956) was a long-time member and leading official of the French Communist Party, and at the time of this writing he had been sent to Algeria from the Soviet Union, where he had been working directly with the Comintern since 1939. Marty returned to France soon after the liberation of Paris where he attempted a revolution or some such thing, trying to take advantage of the chaos and confusion of the newly-forming French government.
In the back of the short pamphlet there was an advertisement among the ads for a provocatively-titled book, Le Martyrs des Antifascistes dans les Camps de Concentration de l'Afrique du Nord. It is unusual first of all because it is about a concentration camp and there was still nearly a year left of WWII; secondly, although I cannot find a copy of it online, I assume that the camp is a Vichy camp, set up to contain and work and kill Jews, anti-fascists, and other perceived enemies of Vichy France and Germany. More so than the present pamphlet, this is what would make for good reading. Also, this ad sits among a number of others that refer to the coming liberation of Algeria from France--something that would not happen until the end of a complicated and awful war of liberation fought from 1954 to 1962. The Vietnamese operated under the same assumption, that the end of the war would bring about their freedom, too, from the French--the French would be done there in another nine years, replaced by the U.S., and then another 30 years of war. The end of WWII brought with it high clarity and deep complexities, with thousands of varied decisions affecting the lives of hundreds of millions of people. August 1945-August 1946 was a very involved and potentially dangerous year, full of joy, relief, desperation, hope, hunger, revenge, gratitude, homelessness, and so on.
The last bit on this unusual pamphlet--my copy comes from the Library of Congress, having been sent there from the library of the Office of Strategic Services (O.S.S.), which was the direct predecessor of the C.I.A., the library holding things classified and not, though it was not for the use of the general population. According to the WorldCat/OCLC, there are no copies of this in libraries in North and South America, with only three copies located institutionally in Europe.
Using a simple search on WorldCat for the period 1930-1938 there seem to be about 33 distinct and different titles using “concentration camp” in the title or having “concentration camp” as a keyword—so, not all that many; not unknown, of course, but still, not too many. There's about an equal distribution between German/Soviet concentration camps, with Spain and Cyprus making appearances. A quick look for 1940-1944 shows 103 titles, 90+ of them being distinct and separate. Beyond 1944 the data on WorldCat gets a little tricky to use in such a quick way as I have been using it—the numbers get bigger and the classifications grow wider, so I really can't offhandedly say how many books were published in, say, 1945/6 using the previously-mentioned criteria. This at least gives some idea of the relative opacity of the topic within a restricted parameter.
Some of the interesting titles from the early period include:
The Sonnenburg Concentration Camp. New York City: Workers International Relief and the International Labor Defense, 1934.
Chernavin "Life in Concentration Camps in USSR." The Slavonic and East European Review12.35 (1934): 387-408.
Appalling Facts. Letters from German Concentration Camps.Martin Lawrence: London, 1935
Niemöller, Martin, and A. S. Duncan-Jones. From U-Boat to Concentration Camp : The Autobiography of M. Niemöller.London, 1936.
Nazi Germany : Its Concentration Camps, Penitentiaries and Jails.New York: Labor Chest, 1938
Being part of the OSS library the Marty pamphlet has a borrower's card in a slip on the rear cover, and it shows that it was borrowed "indefinitely" by Henry B. Hill, 1907-1990, "...professor of history, University of Kansas, who developed British history there and later at Wisconsin".--Cloak & Gown: Scholars in the Secret War, 1939-1961 by Robin W. Winks (New York: William Morrow, 1987), pp. 495-97. I have about 50 or so of these former OSS Library pamphlets, and they almost all have these call slips, and they almost all have been borrowed at one time or another. And for those names I could find they all had gone on to interesting lives.
A.Kartasheff, Michael Federoff, and Boris Kateneff's To the Civilized World, an Appeal by the Russian National Committee is a four-page leaflet and strongly-worded plea to the world-at-large to not recognize the Communist government in Moscow, this based on the behavior of the government and judicial system is the first of the show trials, "the incredibly cynical Donetz trial". I've included the three pages of the indictment against the "bestial face" of the "communistic power which has its headquarters at Moscow". The authors ask readers to "not hinder us in our fight for freedom" and to "repudiate your direct and indirect alliance with the criminal power that has established itself in Russia". To the great tragedy of many dozens of millions of people, this was just the beginning of the Stalinist purge.
This was also H.L. Mencken's copy, given over in January 1929. I can't find him writing on the trial in 1928, but it does make an appearance in his American Mercury in November 1937 in a savage article "Ten Years of Soviet Terror" (by the magazine's "Moscow Correspondent", an anonymous writer kept so for the sake of protection):
"The famous Shakhty trial in May, 1928, was the signal for a nation-wide persecution· of engineers and technicians, which lasted for fully three years. Hundreds were shot on the thinnest evidence and on mere suspicion of sabotage, thousands were herded into concentration camps. They became the technical personnel in the vast structure of forced labor under the command of the GPU which, at its height, employed more than 2,000,000 prisoners." Also:
"The first major political trial to have the effect of seriously aggravating the internal political situation in the Soviet Union was the so-called Shakhty case. The defendants were engineers and technicians in the coal industry of the Donetz basin. They were accused of “wrecking,” deliberately causing explosions in the mines, and maintaining criminal ties with the former mine owners, as well as less serious crimes, such as buying unnecessary imported equipment, violating safety procedures and labor laws, incorrectly laying out new mines, and so on. At the trial some of the defendants confessed their guilt, but many denied it or confessed to only some of the charges. The court acquitted four of the 53 defendants, gave suspended sentences to four, and prison terms of one to three years to 10. Most of the defendants were given four to 10 years. Eleven were condemned to be shot, and five of them were executed in July 1928. The other six were granted clemency by the All-Union Central Executive Committee."-- Medvedev, Roy. Let History Judge. New York: Columbia University Press, 1989, p. 258 via Espresso Stalinist https://espressostalinist.com/the-real-stalin-series/moscow-trials/