A Daily History of Holes, Dots, Lines, Science, History, Math, the Unintentional Absurd & Nothing |1.6 million words, 7500 images, 4 million hits| Press & appearances in The Times, Le Figaro, MENSA, The Economist, The Guardian, Discovery News, Slate, Le Monde, Sci American Blogs, Le Point, and many other places... 4,200+ total posts
The question asked by Roy Hudson in 1937 (with the striking red-question-marked cover and the germ-y, bacterial typeface for "Reds":
And the answer--the Reds are us, the U.S. turned inside out by none other than Franklin Roosevelt by using The New Deal to incorporate Marx/Engels Communism and scuttle Capitalism and Democracy:
And the rear cover:
It Can Happen Here is an early version of a title of numerous variants, including the pre-trumpian 1935 Sinclair Lewis novel It Can't Happen Here, the 1964 movie It Happened Here (where Hitler has taken over England, and includes machine-gunning murders of children), and of course Frank Zappa's "It Can't Happen Here" (which has nothing to do with the previous bits or anything else, except "Suzy") to name a few. It Can Happen Here is a bit of a lie, as the case is made that Can=Did.
Hans Trzebiatowsky & Karl Spaethe--two engineers turned propagandists--wrote the study/notebook for "students" working through modern German history, Merk- und Arbeitsblatter fuer Reichskunde, which was published in Magdeburg in 1941. It was very successful, as the title page states that this edition ("18...23 Auflage") was the "1058 ,,, 1035, Thausend" which seems to put the print run over one million. Given that there were 66 million people in Germany in 1940, and that 6.6 million were soldiers, this may mean that just about every child between the ages of 12-17 had one of these--in any event, if those publication numbers were accurate, then the publication must have been ubiquitous.
The paperback publication is tall (about 12") and densely written, and for all of that is only 24 pages long. It is designed with perforation along the left-hand edge of the sheets so that the page could be removed and gathered in a two-ring binder. After dealing with the first and second Reichs in pages 1 and 2, the rest of the issue is a history and philosophy lesson on the Third Reich, presented for the Hitler Jugend in the best interests of the Nationalsozialistche Deutsche Arbeiter-Partei.
The images in the publication were striking, and even for a bored general student or Hitler Youth could have lazily flipped through these pages without noticing them and having soem sort of message delivered. For example, this map that shows the state of the alliances in WWI and how the rest of the world outside of these allies stood against Germany:
(Map is about 100% larger than the original)
It should be understood though that the booklet was most definitely not a picture book for kids, as it was detail-heavy and brimming with Nazi needs:
The book was definitely intended for instruction, as the back of every sheet of text is a 40-line ruled notebook page, ready for note--my copy hasn't a word in it.
The author of this pamphlet (written and probably published in 1939) was described in at age 95 in 1995 as "America's oldest living revolutionary". He did write a very concise catechism on Marxism, though it wasn't actually a literal A-B-C of the subject, though it did deal with the basics of the philosophy. It does seem from arm's length that Cowl led an interesting and very full life (http://pubs.socialistreviewindex.org.uk/sr208/obit.htm).
"HE IS America's oldest living revolutionary. Carl Cowl, aged 95, not only remains a committed Marxist; by a curious process of osmosis he now looks a dead ringer for his famous mentor. When he visited Marx's tomb in Highgate Cemetery in London last week, one young schoolgirl even asked him if he and Marx were one and the same person. "I told her no, I wasn't, that Marx was a good deal more important than I have ever been." Secretly, you suspect, he is flattered at being mistaken for the Great Bearded One...Almost 80 years since he first became a socialist, Cowl's faith in socialism's future remains as strong as ever."--Independent,.http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/marxism-never-died-for-carl-95-1590586.html
This pamphlet--published not after March 26, 1946, with the latest letter in the text being September 25, 1945--describes the "plight" of Ukrainian "DPs" at the end of WWII. "Plight" is a very weak word for their situation, as is the term designated them, "DP" or "displaced person". These people--several million of them--had been slave laborers, taken by the Nazis in the advance through Central Europe, and sent to work in German factories and fields. Many were theoretically and semi-practically paid a wage, though in general much of that went to providing themselves food and clothing and such that enabled them to work. These people were known as Ostarbeiter (Eastern Laborer), and at the end of the war, many were repatriated to their country of origin. Of the 3-5 million Ostarbeiter, about 2.5 remained alive at war's end, with the vast majority--over 2 million--being from the Ukraine. This pamphlet details some of the terrible accounts of Ukrainians being repatriated to the Soviet Union and being treated as plagued outsiders, criminals, and worse, some simply executed, while hundreds of thousands of others were sent on for "re-education", with many winding up in the Gulags. It was a terrible position to be in--the slave returned home after the war to be treated as a criminal, and slave again. The conditions for repatriation to the Soviet Union were so bad that by October 1945 General Eisenhower forbade this action in the U.S. Occupied Zones.
I've reprinted the full text below. (Plight of Ukrainian DPs : a few typical letters of many being received daily from Europe describing the tragic plight of Ukrainian displaced persons whom the Soviets would forcibly repatriate and doom to enslavement, persecution or death, ca. 1945/6, or 1945 according to WorldCat/OCLC.)
NOTE: good, clear images are available when you click on the page images; double-click for giant images.
I found this nice association copy of an unusual pamphlet1--the work is on the Lowenbrau brewery in Munchen (with a nice bird's-eye view of the massive works), and it was given once upon a time to the Library of Congress by none other than the Bard of Baltimore, H.L. Mencken (1880-1956), who was known to enjoy his suds. As a matter of fact, here's a sort of quietly iconic picture of the man from the Baltimore Sun, legally enjoying his drink in Baltimore in 1933, right after the repeal of prohibition (1920-1933).
And this, gifting the pamphlet seven years earlier:
But what I really liked was this photo of the cooper works, dozens of folks working on the barrels to be filled with beer, an entire industry dedicated to packaging liquid and grain, all gone now:
1. Aktienbrauerei zum Lowenbrau in Munchen, which was probably published by the brewery, and printed pre-WWI, ca. 1910 or so.
This leaflet was dropped on German forces by the R.A.F. and the U.S.A.A.F. soon after the breakout of the Battle of the Bulge/Ardennes in the end of January 1945, which is one of the two failures that this propaganda sheet screamed about. It is a little odd though that in the map it would show the German offensive at its worst for the U.S. troops, with the bulge extending far west and Bastogne being surrounded. Yet the leaflet told of the German losses of its failed offensive ("Operation Watch on the Rhine") though it did not show the progress of the month-long battle on the map, which should have shown the battle line back to its more-or-less original position by 25 January. In describing the catastrophe of the German position in the east (leading with the loss of "380,000 soldiers") the date of 24 January is mentioned, which supports the late January estimate for a printing date. This was of course the Vistula-Oder Offensive. which saw the Soviet Army advance more than 300 miles in a month, right to the Oder, only 40-odd miles from Berlin. In that campaign the German Army Group A was just about killed--of the 450,000 soldiers in retreat along this long and disastrous front during the month of January, the overwhelming majority were casualties, including nearly 300,000 killed. The wounded and other survivors became POWs. The bottom line of course was that the winter of 1945 for the German soldier was bitter and deadly, and was leading nowhere except defeat--there was no doubt what lay ahead after seeing that map of the Eastern Front.
I'd hate to have been in some Wehrmacht hellhole foxhole in March 1945 and have this fall on me from the sky--I imagine there was little doubt that even the lowest ranking soldier knew that they were in the grip of some enormous vise.
I have posted on this blog many times on the Holocaust, and in my reading travels in that area I do not often see contemporary reporting using massive numbers to describe what was happening to the Jews. I own a part of the archive of Alexander Uhl, a superior reporter who had seen fighting in the Spanish Civil War while covering the war there for Associated Press, and who had also covered WWII in Europe, reporting for the great PM newspaper and for which he was awarded the French Legion of Honor medal. As I was looking through a collection of his snipped articles from PM for 1943 and 1944 I came upon this, on coming to the rescue of 400,000 Jews who could "still be saved", which for some reason appeared on page nine of the old-line Leftie newspaper.
Uhl opens the July 31, 1944 article talking about having covered the Bermuda Conference ("a most unhappy conference if there ever was one", in late April, 1943), where U.S. and U.K. representatives (of not particularly high standing) met to discus how to save the remaining Jews of Europe. Uhl reports that affairs were no closer to a solution 14 months later than at Bermuda, where the conduct of the war was of primary importance and the "refugee problem" not. (There are many variations and interpretations of the Allied response at this conference, though from my reading the majority approach a withering appraisal of the thing.1)
Uhl then goes on to cite the Jewish Agency for Palestine that two-thirds of the 6.5 million Jews of Europe (in 1939) have disappeared, "either killed by the Nazis or died of suffering and privation". That is a big number. (I am in no way saying that this is an historic assessment, as there were numerous other reports on the murder/disappearance of millions of Jews, examples of which can be found in contemporary newspaper accounts relating to the Bermuda Conference. I am stopping here today because it still seems to me to be a rare-enough discussion of a large number of murdered Jews to make notice of it.)
Uhl gets to the point of his story, which is to say that there were 400,000 Jews in Hungary can still be saved if there were enough ships to transport them and enough places to accept them. "If not, they will be doomed to the same fate as the rest of Europe's Jewry". Uhl makes note of the 1500 entry permits allowed for Jews into Palestine as dictated by the government of Great Britain, which as Uhl reported showed no inclination to change anything.
I reprint the article below for the rest of the story. (I ma told by someone who knows that PM is a rarely-held newspaper in institutions and does not often show up online.)
The Spanish Secret (Underground) Newspaper “Reconquest of Spain”, which is being Printed in Madrid, Has Arrived in Algiers and Publishes an Appeal of the Supreme Council of the National Union, Which Has Just been Received in Mexico, is a rare offset publication--five leaves long and approximately 1500 words--was which published in December 1943, and which seems to be a general call-to-arms to overthrow the Spanish right-wing leader Francisco Franco (still dead after all of these years). The Spanish Civil war was overwhelmingly over by 1939, though there was still considerable resistance to Franco--much of that at this point (1943) not in Spain. The Spanish government for their part were busy trying to keep their non-neutral neutrality at an optimum price and profit, selling material to the Nazis, and holding out for a more-beneficial payout to themselves from Hitler for joining the Axis outright, which never did happen. The publication refers to an underground secret newspaper called the "reconquest of Spain", which I guess would be simply called the Reconquista, which in recently history would have referred to the fight against Franco from 1936 to 1939, and also ()in the deeper past) the 700-year-long fight to establish a Christian kingdom in Spain free of Islamic occupation (ca. 700-1500). Unfortunately my knowledge of Spain during WWII regarding the Republican fight is extremely limited, and so I can't say anything further about the newspaper--I'm not even sure if this publication below is a reprint of the text of the newspaper (which it seems to be, perhaps) or not. In any event, here's some samples from the publication:
[Provenance: from the estate of Alexander Uhl, Associated Press reporter in Spain during the Revolution. WorldCat/OCLC locates 0 copies.]
“We are uniting to fight, to mobilize the Spanish people in the defense of its very life, to radically extirpate the foreign domination from the soil of Spain…”
“Franco in Power is the death of Spain…”
"This is a wartime call to Spaniards to honor their fatherland and overthrow the Nazis and Franco..."
“Spaniards! In criminal combination with the foreign master, the Cabinet of lackeys is killing Spain. It was promising great riches to the Fatherland and has subjected Spain to vassalage. It had claimed prosperity to the country and the country is in ruins… "
“The nation is groaning, gagged, deprived of liberty…”
“…the execution squads are irrigating with Spanish blood the sacred soil of the fatherland…”
“Over the gloomy background, while the victorious armies of the United Nations are opening for themselves a road to Berlin, a million Spaniards, following the footsteps of death and disgraceful infamy of the Blue Division, can be cast in the hecatomb by the criminal will which Franco has publicly invoked…”
“We are uniting to fight, to mobilize the Spanish people in the defense of its very life, to radically extirpate the foreign domination from the soil of Spain…”
“It is not a fight of internal tendencies, but a united attack of the entire nation in order to recover its independence and its sovereignty…”
“We are inviting publicly, solemnly, the Spaniards who profess other political creeds and most especially the Catholics of the two branches and the army, to participate with us in the Supreme Council of the National Union…to overthrow Franco and the Phalange…”
“No honorable Spaniard can fail the call of his Fatherland…and can honor themselves by taking part in this genuine crusade of liberation which today demands unanimous national effort. No desertion will make us lower the colors…”
This rare report asserts and outlines all manner of Nazi war crimes committed against the Soviet Union to April 1943 and issues an official call to keep track of every horror in the form of the Extraordinary State Commission to Investigate Nazi Atrocities via a decree of the Supreme Soviet. At this point the German attack against the U.S.S.R. was nearly two years old and involved the majority of the German army; in April 1943 nearly 4 million German soldiers were waging war against about 10,000,000 Soviets in the largest military campaign in history, ultimately costing the lives of 10 million Soviets and 5 million Germans, with millions more on each side being MIA and captured--staggering numbers.In the midst of all of this the Germans flayed the Soviet Army, people, and land, and the Russians were very highly decided that now that the turning of the offensive was in sight (now just a few months after the great victory at Stalingrad),that they would absolutely not forget anything that the Germans did there. This fragile pamphlet was one announcement of this intention.
I've attached the full pamphlet, below, a text-only reproduction from the Internet Archive--I would reproduce my copy with the full flavor of the original except that it might not survive being opened and folded flat over the scanner.
Some of the prominent statements in the pamphlet include the murder of the civilian population as well as their enslavement. Lastly, at the end of this grim spectacle, there is a section naming the German officers responsible for the mass of killing and torture.
"the murder of peaceful citizens and the violation of defenceless citizens, women, children and old folk by the invaders, and also of facts relating to the exportation of Soviet people into German slavery"
"destroying monuments of art and culture of the plundering valuable artistic and historical documents, demolishing buildings and stealing the valuable property of various religious bodies."
"losses inflicted by the marauding and plundering activities of the German Fascist invaders on collective farms, co-operatives, trade union and other social organisations by the plunder and destruction of buildings, devices and equipment designed for production and cultural purposes, by the plunder or destruction of stores of raw and other materials, products and goods, agricultural crops, forests, fruit, vegetables, etc., and other collective farm and co-operative property"
"...torturing and murdering peaceful citizens. They are plundering wholesale the population of towns and villages and exporting the personal property of Soviet citizens, accumulated by their honest labour, to Germany, together with collective and State farm property."
And this incredible statement of truth:
"the German-Fascist Army mercilessly destroys Soviet towns and villages, engages in violence, torture and the tormenting and murder of non-combatant citizens as well as of Soviet war prisoners. History has never before witnessed such mass extermination of human beings as that perpetrated by the German-Fascist invaders. " There is a full section on the "Murder and Torture of Soviet Civilians".
There's much more if you give the work a full reading.
[Source: Internet Archive, https://archive.org/stream/investigationofn00unse/investigationofn00unse_djvu.txt]
This is another in this blog's reprint series of rare and semi-non-existent pamphlets. Although this pamphlet has a somewhat lazy title it does get the point of its contents across, which was mostly how to recognize and challenge Fifth Column work by the Nazis. It is only 15 pages long but there's actually a lot of good common sense on what to do with propaganda--it is really just an invitation to think for yourself. I couldn't find any reference to this online, and there are no copies of the work found in WorldCat/OCLC. Here it is, in full: Download Reprint series-- You Can Outwit Goebbels:
I recently unearthed this rare eyewitness account of Nazi concentration camps, printed in 1945. Since there are only two copies of it located by WorldCat/OCLC, and I'm finding no mentions for it online, I've decided to reproduce it online.
The work: Marguerite Montré-Dardant, 2 camps, 31 prisons, texte de l'allocution prononcée à Limoges le 5 mai 1945.. préface de Fonvieille-Alquier. 32pp. (with sections on Auschwitz, Ravensbruck, Mauthausen).
Today this document put the "living" into history--or at least it did for me. Given how much reading I've done in this area and the amount of exposure I've had to the literature, I knew a fair amount around the edges of this publication. I remember Myron Taylor--a major domo FDR fixit favorite, a wealthy industrial, who was sent on missions for Roosevelt through the mid-1930's and throughout the war. The "refugee problem" referred to in the title was not the internal U.S. dustbowler issue but the gigantic European refugee catastrophe that was very well established by the date of the publication of this paper for Taylor's address on November 25, 1938. I guess that "problem" was not incorrectly used in the title though by 1938 what was happening to stateless and endangered populations in Europe was far more than that, given what was happening in Germany in 1938, all of which was bad for the Jewish population there--and then in Austria, and then Czechoslovakia.
[Scroll down to the end for the rest of the report.]
I hadn't realized how close in time this was to the failed international conference at Evian, where Taylor was the U.S. representative. Evian was the 32-nation conference in which critical interest was expressed in the refugee disaster, but after a week spent on the topic, and in spite of a wide expression of sympathy for the situation of the Jews, there was hardly any actual movement to do anything about the crisis of saving those people--only two countries (Equador and Costa Rica, I think) agreed to expand their immigration quotas. This outcome of course was perfectly well designed for the Nazis, who made a large journalistic play of the affair, citing that national representatives got together and expressed some concern for the Jews but didn't care enough about them to actually do anything.
None of this came out in the Taylor address (reproduced in full, below). In discussing the refugees he says "The victims of these developments are of many faiths,--Catholic, Jewish and Protestant" and mentions the "urgency" to find homes for hundreds of thousands of people.
He goes on to say that chances for helping the afflicted in Germany within Germany were "dimming"--and what he was talking about was the bettering treatment of these groups of people by the Nazis so that a more orderly multi-year emigration plan could be worked out.
Given that in March of 1938 the Nazis annexed Austrian and made another 200,000 Jews stateless by enacting the Nuremberg Laws of 1935, and that the Nazis seized the Sudetenland in August 1938 making another 120,000 Jews stateless, and that just weeks before this address the massive Kristallnacht Pogrom was initiated throughout Germany--that, yes, there was reason to believe that figuring out a four-year evacuation plan was "dimming". For whatever reason, Taylor mentions none of this in this speech.
On the immigration issue in general Taylor tells his audience not be afraid of a "flooding" of immigrants ("with aliens of any race or creed"), as he thinks that it is possible to work with the refugees within the existing highly restrictive quota State Department framework. Given the numbers of people in question and the relatively paltry numbers allowed by the quotas, I do not have any idea as to how Taylor at this point could hope to achieve any of his goals except by somehow cajoling Hitler into giving a suitable number of years allowance to the problem so that the rest of the world could work stuff out.
And even though Taylor was freshly returned from Evian and the issue of the Jewish plight in Germany and its conquered lands, there is only one mention of Jews in this address.
The response of the U.S. to the refugee problem and then to the Holocaust is Very Highly Problematic, or at least so until 1944, when the mass extermination of the Jews and other people was a know quantity for at least a full year, and the U.S. began to act with real urgency.
How Taylor spoke with such a vanilla nothingness at such a pivotal time is unknown to me.
My copy of this paper was in the White House library for a little while--it was sent from there to the Library of Congress after keeping it for four months or so--presumably the WH had another copy, or had absorbed it, or felt it not-useful, or something else. No one will ever know.
Katherine Pollack (b 1905) wrote this informative pamphlet in 1932--it is red though Ms. Pollack wasn't. She did have a solid and liberal background--Ethical Culture School in NYC, economics at Vassar, grad work at Columbia, "tutoring, teaching and writing for the Bryn Mawr Summer School for Women Workers (1927-49), Brookwood Labor College (1929-32)...field work in Southern textile mill towns and West Virginia coal camps..."1, and then on to national offices for the CIO and then the AFL-CIO.
I hate to say it, but I was drawn to the pamphlet for the design. It turns out that Ms. Pollack had the Right Stuff, and knew her business, and lived that life. I'm glad to have made her acquaintance.
The pamphlet was published by the Brookwood Labor College (1921-1937) evidently the first U.S. college devoted to the study of labor, and published in 1932.
JF Ptak Science Books Post 712 (from 2011, extended, with a full text scan of Children Who Work in the Nation's Crops by Gertrude Folks Zimand, National Child Labor Committee, 1939.)
“The history of childhood is a nightmare from which we have only recently begun to awaken…” Lloyd Demause
"Give me other mothers and I will give you a better world." St. Augustine, (who does not mention fathers in this context).
The history of kindness to children is a wicked road to tread—I’m not sure why I’m even thinking about it had I the subject not been awakened by bumping into the map seen below. Without any real directed reading on the topic I’ve intuitively felt that “childhood” as an idea, as a part of human development in the Western world, was a young, newish innovation. The simplest way to perhaps measure this is looking for representations of children as children in Medieval and Renaissance art—that is to say children drawn not as little/miniature adults, but drawn as children actually appear. This does not happen very much at all in the early Renaissance, and virtually never happens in the Medieval. Even when looking for images of Christ as a baby in early art it is far more likely to find him depicted as a little man than it is to see him as a child. Children certainly seem to make more appearances as themselves in book illustration (excepting the obvious works on anatomy and childbirth) beginning in the early 16th century, and I’ve a number of reproductions here of children with learning-to-walk walkers and toys from this period. So at the very least the recognition of the concept of difference in very very young adults as “children” in art took a much longer (and unexpected at least to me) time to develop as a concept. And this is only the barest concept, at least recognizing childhood as a stage of development, which doesn’t necessarily say anything about the aspect of kindnesses expressed to them simply because of this stature. That’s an entirely different story.
One way to measure this aspect of childhood--the history of kindness towards children--is in terms of how much work society allowed them to perform in the adult world—and again, it would be shown that it was discovered only recently. As an issue of moral and responsibility, child labor was regulated first in England in a long series of Factory Acts (13 separate acts from 1819 to 1961, including 1819, 1831, 1833, 1844, 1847, 1850, 1874, 1878, 1891, 1901, 1937, 1959, 1961) . That first breathe of morality and responsibility towards happiness (where happiness means not being exploited) codified that children younger than nine were not allowed to work, and that kids between the ages of 9 and 18 could only work up to 72 hours in a six-day week1. Children were used freely and copiously for work in fields, in chimneys, in mines, and in tough bugger places that couldn’t be reached by full-grown adults, as well as in places that could use little hands, or suspended in places where a lightweight helper could be slung, and so on.
Historically speaking, controlling children seems to have been the major part of dealing with a child: from controlling its body function (with enemas and such), to movement (swaddling to completely restrict motion), to crying (dunking a crying infant in a pail of ice cold water to stop it from crying),and to mood (feeding fussy children liquor and opiates to make it docile. ) The severe beating of children was the great "other" option in dealing with all manner of childhood issues, the thorny crown of behavior modification. On this point Lloyd Demause in his “The Evolution of Childhood” examines 2000 statements of advice on child rearing prior to the 18th century and found that most advocated severe beatings. He noted that the severity of the beatings was common and “a regular part of the child’s life.” The instruments of behavior advocacy here included “whips of all kinds, the cat o’nine tails, shovels, iron and wooden rods, bundles of sticks, the discipline—a whip made of small chains--, and special school instruments like the flapper, made to induce raising blisters.” (Demause, page 41.) Rousseau—hardly alone among the great philosophers—advocated whippings and beatings from infancy; plenty of the great social thinkers from this period and earlier had little use or accommodation for children, even their own.
There’s also the controlling of the mind via images and fear and promise of retribution of hell, as well as the introduction of spooks, ghosts, goblins and other sorts of child-stealers and –eaters. You’d think that the rough and tough and pretty scary stories of Brothers Grimm would be enough, but it doesn’t come close to the really scary guys: Mormo, Canida, Poine, Sybaris, Acco, Empuss, Gorgon, Ephiatles and others were brought in to do the job of control that spanking and beating and hell couldn’t modify.
Then there’s the sexual misconduct and abuse, which was evidently deep and well practiced for thousands of years, with older Roman men and Athenian rent-a-boy being famous examples of something wider and established. Just from reading a bit through some of the standard histories of childhood it is very easy to see the vast amount of sanctioned abuse that seems to constitute one of society's many sorely soft and cancerous underbellies.
Returning to child labor, for most people in the United States the grotesque nature of this activity was finally revealed to the great masses through the work of the legendary photographer Lewis Hine, whose documentary images of the conditions of children and the laboring classes was an extraordinary dose of reality. It took the unimpeachable foundation of the photograph to hammer home to people that children were being subjected to rigorous labor abuse. (The photo above shows children working in a glass factory at midnight.)
But Factory Acts and Lewis Hine et alia made only incremental change in the exploitation of the very young--evidently economies large and small were addicted to the idea. Which brings us to the map that started this thought: it appeared on the back cover of Children Who Work in the Nation's Crops, written by Gertrude Folks Zimand, and published by the National Child Labor Committee (NCLC) in 1940. The map on the back cover shows the migration routes of the young workers:
There's no surprise to what the map showed, though it was a surprise to see the map itself. The NCLC is still around, and so are the children working in the fields. The map has stayed pretty much the same.
The rest of the pamphlet does not pamper the brittle semi-hidden world of the child laborer. I've included the entire work, below.
UNICEF states that there are still hundreds of millions of children being worked illegally throughout the world, and I can't help but wonder who it is that assembles those free Happy Meals toys (watch that copyright!) which are purchased in the millions for a penny or so apiece. When things like that are as cheap as they are, as impossibly cheap as they are, there must be someone, somewhere, paying the price.
1. The high points (taken from Wiki) of the Factory Act of 1833 stated:
Children (ages 14–18) must not work more than 12 hours a day with an hour lunch break. Note that this enabled employers to run two 'shifts' of child labour each working day in order to employ their adult male workers for longer.
Children (ages 9–13) must not work more than 8 hours with an hour lunch break.
Children (ages 9–13) must have two hours of education per day.
Outlawed the employment of children under 9 in the textile industry.
Children under 18 must not work at night.
provided for routine inspections of factories.
Also, good reads on the history of childhood:
G. Rattray Taylor, The Angel Makers David Hunt, Parents and Children in History George Payne, The Child in Human Progress Philippe Aries, Centuries of Childhood
Lloyd Demause,editor, The History of Childhood.
Children Who Work in the Nation's Crops
by Gertrude Folks Zimand, National Child Labor Committee, New York City January 1942