Particle Physics Milestone Chronology

Adapted from the Insitute for High Energy Physics, Russian Federation

The larger, very heavily annotated home of this data lives here.

PARTICLE PHYSICS FROM THE VERY BEGINNING

Chronological Bibliography of the Key Papers

PERRIN 1895. Observation that cathode rays are the flow of negatively charged particles.

RÖNTGEN 1895. Discovery of the X rays

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BECQUEREL 1896B. Evidence for spontaneous radioactivity effect.

BECQUEREL 1896C. Confirmation of the effect of spontaneous radioactivity.

BECQUEREL 1896D. Confirmation of the effect of spontaneous radioactivity.

Observation that uranium radiation is not identical to Röntgen X rays.

BECQUEREL 1896F. Uranium radioactivity established.

THOMSON 1897 Discovery of the electron, the first elementary particle.

RUTHERFORD 1899 Evidence for the a and b components of uranium radiation.

VILLARD 1900 Evidence for the g radioactivity.

BECQUEREL 1900 Confirmation of the g radioactivity.

VILLARD 1900B Gamma radioactivity established.

PLANCK 1900 Discovery of a new formula for the energy spectrum of the black body radiation, Planck's radiation law.

PLANCK 1900B Quantum hypothesis and explanation of the black body radiation spectrum. Beginnings of the quantum era in physics.

PLANCK 1901 Quantum hypothesis and final version of Planck's formula for the black body radiation spectrum.

LEBEDEV 1901 First experimental evidence for pressure of the light on the solid bodies.

RUTHERFORD 1903 Observation that a rays are the flow of doubly positive charged particles.

POINCARE 1905 Introduction of the relativity principle as an overall law of nature valid for all forces including the gravitational one. Formulation of the equation of the relativistic mechanics and transformation laws for electromagnetic field and current. Establishing of the Lorentz group as a symmetry group of nature. First proposal to modify Newtonian theory of gravity on the basis of the relativity principle. Prediction of the gravitational waves propagating with the speed of light.

EINSTEIN 1905 Explanation of the photoelectric effect with use of the quantum hypothesis of Planck. Light is a flow of corpuscular objects with definite energies - Planck's quanta of energy.

EINSTEIN 1905B Invention of the theory of special relativity. Beginnings of the relativistic era in physics.

EINSTEIN 1905C Invention of the theory of special relativity, E = mc2. Beginnings of the relativistic era in physics.

EINSTEIN 1906 Corpuscular-wave dualism for photons. Explanation of the photoelectric effect using the quantum hypothesis of Planck.

STARK 1909 First explicit identification of the photon as a genuine elementary particle possessing both energy and momentum.

MILLIKAN 1911 First conclusive measurement of the charge of the electron.

RUTHERFORD 1911 Evidence for the atomic nucleus. Rutherford model for atomic structure.

HESS 1912 Conclusive evidence for the cosmic rays.

WILSON 1912 Invention of the cloud chamber to visualize tracks of ionizing particles.

HESS 1913 Confirmation of cosmic rays.

MILLIKAN 1913 First precise measurement of the charge of the electron and the Avogadro constant.

BOHR 1913 Invention of the quantum theory of atomic spectra based on the Rutherford model of atomic structure - Bohr's atom.

BOHR 1913B Bohr's quantum theory of atomic spectra. Evidence that radioactivity is a nuclear property.

RUTHERFORD 1913 Confirmation of the existence of atomic nuclei. First indication of the existence of the proton.

CHADWICK 1914 The b spectrum is continuous (first observation). Indirect evidence on the existence of neutral penetrating particles.

MILLIKAN 1916 First conclusive measurement of energy quantization in the photoelectric effect.

BOHR 1918 Bohr's invention of correspondence principle.

RUTHERFORD 1919 Discovery of the proton. Evidence for the proton as a constituent of the nucleus.

RUTHERFORD 1920 Rutherford neutron hypothesis.

CHADWICK 1921 Evidence for the strong interactions.

COMPTON 1923 Direct experimental confirmation that the photon is an elementary particle, the Compton effect.

DE BROGLIE 1923 Suggestion of the corpuscular-wave dualism for electrons - de Broglie waves of matter particles.

DE BROGLIE 1923B Suggestion of the corpuscular-wave dualism for electrons. Prediction of diffraction phenomena for electrons.

WILSON 1923 Experimental confirmation of the ionization process predicted by Compton for a corpuscular photon.

BOSE 1924 Discovery of new statistical counting rules for light quanta and a new derivation of Planck's radiation law. Known as Bose-Einstein quantum statistics for particles with integer spins.

EINSTEIN 1924 Extension of the Bose method to the monoatomic gases. Prediction of Bose-Einstein condensation effect.

EINSTEIN 1925 Extension of the Bose method to the monoatomic ideal gases. Prediction of Bose-Einstein condensation effect and rediscovery of the wave properties of matter particles.

PAULI 1925 Introduction of an additional two-valued degree of freedom for the atomic electron.

PAULI 1925B Discovery of the exclusion principle - the Pauli principle.

UHLENBECK 1925 Invention of the electron spin hypothesis and the notion of an elementary spin.

HEISENBERG 1925 Foundation of quantum mechanics, Heisenberg approach.

BORN 1925 Invention of matrix formalism for the Heisenberg quantum mechanics. Systems with one degree of freedom.

BORN 1926 Development of matrix formalism for the Heisenberg quantum mechanics. Systems with arbitrary many degrees of freedom.

HESS 1926 Firm establishment of cosmic rays.

FERMI 1926 Invention of statistics for ensembles of particles obeying Pauli principle.

FERMI 1926B Invention of statistics for ensembles of particles obeying Pauli principle - Fermi-Dirac quantum statistics.

SCHRÖDINGER 1926 Creation of wave mechanics. Invention of the Schrödinger wave equation.

SCHRÖDINGER 1926B Wave mechanics: First applications.

SCHRÖDINGER 1926C Equivalency of quantum mechanics of Heisenberg, Born, and Jordan and wave mechanics of Schrödinger.

SCHRÖDINGER 1926D Wave mechanics: Perturbation theory and applications.

SCHRÖDINGER 1926E Wave mechanics: Further development and generalization.

BORN 1926B Statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics. Quantum theory of scattering. Born approximation.

BORN 1926C Statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics: Further development.

DIRAC 1926 Rediscovery of statistics for an ensemble of fermions - the Fermi-Dirac quantum statistics.

BORN 1926D Statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics: Further development.

FOCK 1926 Pusto.

DAVISSON 1927 Experimental evidence that the electron moves as a group of de Broglie waves.

DIRAC 1927 First steps in quantum field theory. Invention of the second quantization method.

DIRAC 1927B Foundations of quantum electrodynamics - QED.

DENNISON 1927 Evidence that proton spin is equal to the electron spin.

ELLIS 1927 Confirmation that the b spectrum is continuous.

ELLIS 1927B Further confirmation that the b spectrum is continuous.

HEISENBERG 1927 Heisenberg discovery of the uncertainty principle.

WIGNER 1927B Invention of spatial parity as a quantum mechanical conserved quantity.

DAVISSON 1927B Discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals. Confirmation of the wave properties of moving electrons.

THOMSON 1928 Confirmation of diffraction of electrons by crystals.

DIRAC 1928 Discovery of the relativistic wave equation for the electron. Prediction of the magnetic moment of the electron.

GAMOW 1928 Explanation of a decay as a consequence of quantum-mechanical tunneling through a potential barrier.

DIRAC 1928B Relativistic wave equation for the electron and theory of the Zeeman effect.

SKOBELZYN 1929 Birth of cosmic rays particle physics. Observation of energetic cosmic electrons and a shower produced by cosmic ray particle.

BOTHE 1929 Observation that the cosmic rays at sea level consist mainly of ionizing particles.

BIRGE 1929 First step in metrology of the general physical constants.

DIRAC 1930 Introduction of the negative energy electron sea with holes treated as positive electrons. Attempt to identify these holes with protons.

MEITNER 1930 Firm establishment that the b spectrum is continuous.

PAULI 1930 Proposal for the existence of the neutral fermion emitted in nuclear beta decay - the neutrino.

TAMM 1930 Difficulties with identifying positive holes with protons in the Dirac theory of electrons and protons. Too small a lifetime of the ordinary atom.

OPPENHEIMER 1930 First evidence of ultraviolet divergences occurring in the theory of quantum electrodynamics - the self-energy of the electron.

DIRAC 1931 Prediction of the anti-electron (e+), anti-proton ( anti-p), and an indication of the possible existence of magnetic monopoles.

LAWRENCE 1931 Lawrence proposal for cyclotrons.

LAWRENCE 1931B Tests of the first cyclotron.

VAN DE GRAAFF 1931 Invention of the Van de Graaff electrostatic accelerator.

RAMAN 1932 Experimental proof that the photon has spin = 1.

ANDERSON 1932 First experimental evidence for the positron.

CHADWICK 1932 First evidence for the neutron.

CHADWICK 1932B Discovery of the neutron.

COCKCROFT 1932 First evidence of nuclear reactions with accelerated protons. Cockcroft-Walton accelerator.

IWANENKO 1932 Suggestion that the neutron is a constituent of the atomic nucleus.

UREY 1932 Evidence for the deuteron.

FOCK 1932 Description of the space of states for quantum systems with an arbitrary (infinite) number of particles - Fock space.

HEISENBERG 1932 Suggestion that atomic nuclei are composed of protons and neutrons. Theory of nuclear exchange forces. Invention of nucleon isotopic spin.

BLACKETT 1932 Confirmation of fast penetrating charged particles in cosmic rays.

UREY 1932B Discovery of the deuteron.

LAWRENCE 1932 Further development of cyclotrons.

WIGNER 1932 Introduction of the time inversion transformation in quantum mechanics.

VAN DE GRAAFF 1933 Invention of electrostatic accelerators. Further development.

ANDERSON 1933 Discovery of the positron, the first antiparticle, predicted by Dirac.

BLACKETT 1933 e+ and shower confirmation. First indication for e+ e– pair production.

MAJORANA 1933 Further development of the theory of nuclear forces.

FRISCH 1933 First measurement of the proton magnetic moment.

ESTERMAN 1933 Further measurement of the proton magnetic moment.

CHADWICK 1934 Evidence for deuteron photodisintegration. First precise measurements of the neutron mass.

PAULI 1934 Explanation of the continuous electron energy spectrum in b decay. Proposal for the neutrino.

FERMI 1934 Field theory for beta decay. First estimation of the neutrino mass.

ALTSHULER 1934 Prediction of the negative anomalous magnetic moment of the neutron.

CERENKOV 1934 First evidence for Vavilov- Cerenkov radiation.

VAVILOV 1934 First attempt to understand Vavilov- Cerenkov radiation. Evidences that it is not a luminescence.

MURPHY 1934 Evidence that the spin of the deuteron is 1.

ESTERMAN 1934 First measurements of magnetic moments of the deuteron and neutron.

YUKAWA 1935 Yukawa field theory of nuclear forces. Prediction of heavy quanta, the pion particles, as mediators of strong interactions.

BREIT 1936 Breit-Wigner form of the amplitude for resonance reactions.

GAMOW 1936 Extension of Fermi interaction and Gamow-Teller selection rules.

BREIT 1936B Hypothesis of charge independence of nuclear forces.

CASSEN 1936 Proposal of the isotopic spin (for the nucleon).

TAMM 1937 Theoretical explanation of Cerenkov radiation phenomenon.

WIGNER 1937 Discovery of supermultiplet structure in nuclear spectroscopy.

NEDDERMEYER 1937 First evidence for the muon.

MAJORANA 1937 Symmetrical theory of electrons and positrons. Majorana neutrino theory.

STREET 1937 Confirmation of the muon existence.

BLOCH 1937 Treatment of infrared divergence.

CERENKOV 1937 Confirmation of the Frank-Tamm theory of the Vavilov- Cerenkov effect.

STREET 1937B Muon existence confirmation.

WHEELER 1937 First proposal for the S matrix formalism.

NISHINA 1937 Confirmation of the existence of the muon.

SCHWINGER 1937 Establishment of the neutron spin 1/2.

ALVAREZ 1938 First evidence for the capture of atomic electrons by the weak interaction; K-capture.

STÜCKELBERG 1938 Invention of the baryonic quantum number conservation law.

LAWRENCE 1939 First cyclotron for medical applications.

KELLOGG 1939 High-precision measurements of proton and deuteron magnetic moments.

ROSSI 1939 First evidence of muon decay and first estimation of its lifetime.

DUNNINGTON 1939 Further development of the metrology of fundamental physics parameters.

WILLIAMS 1940 First observation of muon decay.

ALVAREZ 1940 First direct measurement of the neutron magnetic moment.

PAULI 1940B Theorem on the connection between spin and statistics.

KERST 1940 Kerst proposal for betatron accelerator.

RASETTI 1941 First measurement of the muon lifetime, preliminary result.

KERST 1941 First betatron.

RASETTI 1941B First measurement of the muon lifetime.

ROSSI 1942 Evidence for the muon exponential decay rate.

NERESON 1942 Confirmation of the muon exponential decay rate.

FERMI 1943 First Fermi nuclear reactor. Beginning of atomic energy era.

TOMONAGA 1943 Creation of the covariant quantum electrodynamic theory. Tomonaga method.

HEISENBERG 1943 Invention of the S-matrix formalism.

VEKSLER 1944 Invention of the principle of phase stability for accelerators.

LEPRINCE-RINGUET 1944 First evidence for the K+.

LANDAU 1944 Landau distribution for fast particle energy loss by ionization.

IWANENKO 1944 Limitation of the maximal energy attainable in a betatron.

MCMILLAN 1945 Invention of the principle of phase stability for accelerators.

GAMOW 1946 Gamow indication on the possibility to explain the observed chemical elements abundance-curve by assumption of unequilibrium process of elements formation during a limited interval of time. Birth of the Big Bang model.

MCMILLAN 1946 Further development of the synchrotron idea.

PONTECORVO 1946 Proposal for the radiochemical method of detecting the neutrino.

CONVERSI 1947 Evidence that the muon is not a strong interaction mediator.

KOBA 1947 Creation of the covariant quantum electrodynamic theory. Tomonaga method.

BROBECK 1947 First cyclotron based on the phase stability principle - the Berkeley 184 inch synchrocyclotron.

PERKINS 1947 First indication of the existence of the p–.

OCCHIALINI 1947 Confirmation of the p–.

KOBA 1947B Creation of the covariant quantum electrodynamic theory. Tomonaga method.

LAMB 1947 First measurements of the fine structure of the hydrogen atom, the Lamb shift.

PONTECORVO 1947 First idea about universality of the Fermi weak interactions.

BETHE 1947 First theoretical calculation of the Lamb shift in non-relativistic QED.

MARSHALL 1947 Invention of scintillation counters.

KUSCH 1947 First measurement of g-2 for the electron, preliminary result.

LATTES 1947 First indication of the existence of p– decay into m–.

LATTES 1947B Confirmation of the p–. First evidence for pion decay p± ® m± neutrals.

ROCHESTER 1947 First evidence for V events. Confirmation of the existence of a charged unstable particle with a mass between those of the muon and proton.

HINCKS 1948 Nonexistence of m– ® e– g decay.

ROSE 1948 First explicit theoretical paper on the investigation of the electromagnetic structure of a nucleus by electron-nucleus scattering.

FOLEY 1948 First measurement of g-2 for the electron.

SCHWINGER 1948B First theoretical calculation of g-2 for the electron.

SARD 1948 Nonexistence of m– ® e– g decay.

FEYNMAN 1948 Proposal to modify classical electrodynamics to a form suitable for quantization.

SNELL 1948 First evidence for neutron beta decay.

FEYNMAN 1948B Creation of the covariant theory of quantum electrodynamics. Feynman method.

SCHWINGER 1948 Creation of the covariant quantum electrodynamic theory. Schwinger method.

PICCIONI 1948 Confirmation of the nonexistence of m– ® e– g decay.

TATI 1948 Creation of the covariant quantum electrodynamic theory. Tomonaga method.

FEYNMAN 1948C Invention of the path integral formalism for quantum mechanics.

BROWN 1949B First evidence for three-prong kaon decay.

BURFENING 1949 First pion production reaction by accelerator.

DYSON 1949 Covariant quantum electrodynamics: Equivalence between the Tomonaga-Schwinger method and the Feynman method and generalization.

SCHWINGER 1949 Creation of the covariant quantum electrodynamic theory. Schwinger method.

LEIGHTON 1949 Confirmation of the continuous energy distribution of the e– in the decay m– ® e– X. Muon spin = 1/2.

DYSON 1949B Covariant quantum electrodynamics: Equivalence between the Tomonaga-Schwinger method and the Feynman method and generalization.

FEYNMAN 1949 Creation of the covariant quantum electrodynamic theory. Feynman method.

FEYNMAN 1949B Development of the covariant quantum electrodynamic theory. Feynman method.

MCKAY 1949 Invention of semi-conductor detectors.

FERMI 1949 First composite model of pions.

KEUFFEL 1949 Creation of the spark chamber method for particle tracking.

BJORKLUND 1950 First evidence for the existence of the po.

ROBSON 1950 First observation of neutron beta decay.

WARD 1950 Ward identity in quantum electrodynamics.

SERIFF 1950 Further evidence for V events.

SNELL 1950 Confirmation of neutron beta decay.

ROBSON 1950B Further confirmation of neutron beta decay.

REYNOLDS 1950 Invention of liquid scintillation counters.

KALLMANN 1950 Another invention of liquid scintillation counters.

STEINBERGER 1950 First evidence for the production of the po and for po ® g g decay.

CARLSON 1950 Confirmation of the existence of the po, first estimation of the po lifetime.

LIPPMANN 1950 Systematic treatment of the application of variational principles to the quantum theory of scattering. Invention of the Lippmann-Schwinger form of the Schrödinger equation.

FEYNMAN 1950 Mathematical proof of the validity of the Feynman rules for calculations of amplitudes in QED.

LORD 1950 First evidence for multiple hadron production in nucleon-nucleon interactions. First evidence for the forward jet of secondary particles in hadronic interactions.

PANOFSKY 1951 Confirmation of the po and po ® g g decay. Direct determination of the p– parity.

BRUECKNER 1951 Confirmation of the odd parity of the p–.

O'CEALLAIGH 1951 First evidence for K+ ® m+ neutral(s) decay.

FRETTER 1951 Confirmation of the existence of heavy unstable particles.

BRIDGE 1951 Further confirmation of the existence of heavy unstable particles.

DURBIN 1951C Determination of the spin of the p+.

CLARK 1951 Another determination of the spin of the p+.

ARMENTEROS 1951 Evidence for the possible existence of the L hyperon. First evidence for the Ko meson.

LEIGHTON 1951 Evidence for two types of neutral V particles, baryonic and mesonic.

FOWLER 1951 Confirmation of the K+.

ARMENTEROS 1951B Evidence for the possible existence of the L hyperon. First evidence for the Ko meson.

LYMAN 1951 First results from electron-nuclei scattering experiment.

SALPETER 1951 Bethe-Salpeter relativistic equation for two-body bound-state problems.

ANNIS 1952 Confirmation of the existence of heavy charged unstable particles.

HEISENBERG 1952 Prediction of rising total hadronic cross sections.

ANDERSON 1952B First indication for the D(1232 P33) resonance.

ANDERSON 1952E Further evidence for the D(1232 P33)++ resonance.

PAIS 1952 Hypothesis on associative production of Vo particles.

COURANT 1952 Invention of the strong focusing principle for accelerators.

ARMENTEROS 1952 First evidence for the X– hyperon.

BONETTI 1953 First evidence for the charged S hyperon.

BONETTI 1953B Confirmation of the existence of S+ and S– hyperons.

YORK 1953 Direct experimental evidence for the S+.

THOMPSON 1953 First evidence for K ® p p decay.

THOMPSON 1953B First measurement of the Ko mass.

FOWLER 1953C First V-event production at the Cosmotron.

GLASER 1953 First evidence of charged particle tracks in a bubble chamber.

FOWLER 1953B Confirmation of the existence of the L hyperon. First evidence for associated production of heavy unstable particles.

REINES 1953B First evidence for the anti-ne.

GELL-MANN 1953 Extension of isotopic multiplet structure for new unstable particles. Explanation of pairwise production of V particles.

KONOPINSKI 1953 Invention of the concept of lepton quantum number.

ANDERSON 1953B Confirmation of the existence of the X–.

COWAN 1953 Further confirmation of the X–.

LINDENBAUM 1953 Confirmation of the existence of the D(1232 P33) resonance.

DANYSZ 1953 First evidence for a hypernucleus.

DALITZ 1953 Invention of the Dalitz plot method to analyse spatial quantum numbers of mesons by their decays into three known particles.

STÜCKELBERG 1953 Invention of the renormalization group.

GREGORY 1954 Confirmation of the decays K± ® m± neutral.

FOWLER 1954C Confirmation of the existence of the S–. Evidence for the associated production of strange particles.

COWAN 1954 Confirmation of X– cascade decay. First indication for anti-L.

DALITZ 1954 First indication on zero spin and odd parity for the K meson.

GELL-MANN 1954B Invention and exploration of the renormalization group concept.

GELL-MANN 1954 Forward dispersion relations for massive particles.

YANG 1954 Introduction of local gauge isotopic spin invariance in quantum field theory: Yang-Mills theory.

HODSON 1954 Evidence for K+ ® p+ po decay.

LUDERS 1954 Theoretical evidence for CPT invariance in local quantum field theory.

DAVIES 1955B First experimental evidence that neutrino is not identical with antineutrino.

GELL-MANN 1955 Prediction of the long lived kaon KL.

KARPLUS 1955 Forward dispersion relations for massive particles.

WALKER 1955D Confirmation of associated production of strange particles. First indication of the existence of the So.

GOLDBERGER 1955 Dispersion relations for massive particles.

GOLDBERGER 1955B Forward dispersion relations for massive particles.

BRIDGE 1955 Confirmation of the existence of the K+ and K–.

ARMENTEROS 1955 Confirmation of the existence of the K+.

CHUPP 1955 First precise measurement of the K+ mass.

ALVAREZ 1955 First measurement of the K+ lifetime. First evidence for the equality of lifetimes of the Q and t mesons.

ILOFF 1955 K+ lifetime measurements from decays in flight.

GLAUBER 1955 Invention the theory of the diffractive shadow effects in the high energy reactions with composite particles.

BIRGE 1955B Further measurements of charged-kaon masses. Masses of the strange K+, Q, and t mesons are equal.

CHAMBERLAIN 1955 Experimental evidence for the antiproton.

GERSHTEIN 1955 Evidence that strong interactions do not modify the vector coupling constant of beta decay. Analogy between electromagnetic and weak interactions.

SORRELS 1955 Confirmation of the associated production of strange particles.

CHINOWSKY 1955 First evidence for the odd parity of the po.

PAIS 1955 Proposal for the KL ® KS regeneration experiment.

LEHMANN 1955 Beginnings of the axiomatic field theory of the S-matrix.

CONVERSI 1955 Invention of flash tube chambers.

DAVIES 1955 Measurements of charged kaon decay branching fractions.

CHODOROW 1955 First GeV linear accelerator at Stanford.

NISHIJIMA 1955 Nishijima classification of strange particles with prediction of So and Xo hyperons.

FUNG 1956 Confirmation of the equality of the masses of K+ and t+ mesons.

FITCH 1956 Confirmation of the equality of the lifetimes of K+ and Q (K+ ® p+ po) mesons.

BRABANT 1956C Confirmation of the existence of the antiproton.

ALVAREZ 1956 Firm establishment of the K+ lifetime value. Establishment of equality of the lifetimes of K+ (K+ ® m+ neutral), Q (K+ ® p+ po), and t+ (K+ ® p+ p+ p–) mesons.

WIGHTMAN 1956 Wightman axiomatic field theory.

HILL 1956 First indication of annihilation of the antiproton in matter.

CHAMBERLAIN 1956E First evidence of annihilation of the antiproton in emulsion.

CHEW 1956 Static model for the pion-nucleon interaction.

KERST 1956 First realistic proposal for probing high energies by colliding beams of particles.

MCALLISTER 1956 First measurement of the proton electromagnetic radius.

CHAMBERLAIN 1956F Confirmation of antiproton-nucleon annihilation.

COWAN 1956 Confirmation of the detection of the anti-ne.

REINES 1956 First detection of the free neutrino.

LANDE 1956 First evidence for the KL.

FRY 1956 Confirmation of the existence of the KL.

LEE 1956 Proposals to test spatial parity conservation in weak interactions.

CORK 1956 First evidence for the antineutron.

LEE 1956B Invention of G-parity for nonstrange mesons.

BOGOLYUBOV 1956 Development of the renormalization group method in quantum field theory.

LOGUNOV 1956 Generalization of the renormalization group equations in QED for arbitrary covariant gauge.

GELL-MANN 1956 Gell-Mann classification of strange particles with prediction of So and Xo.

SYMANZIK 1956 Derivation of dispersion relations in field theory for pion nucleon forward scattering amplitude.

BOGOLYUBOV 1956B Formulation of the Bogolyubov axiomatic approach to the local quantum field theory. Derivation of dispersion relations in field theory for pion nucleon scattering amplitude, general case.

SAKATA 1956 Invention of composite model for hadrons based on three basic elements.

IOFFE 1957 Indication of the possibility of charge conjugation violation in weak interactions.

PLANO 1957 Confirmation of the existence of the So hyperon. First measurement of the So mass.

SALAM 1957 Postulation of g5 invariance for the weak interaction Lagrangian. Two-component theory of neutrino.

BARKAS 1957 Confirmation of antiproton-nucleon annihilation.

WU 1957 First evidence for parity nonconservation in weak decays.

GARWIN 1957 Confirmation of parity violation in weak decays. Evidence of charge conjugation parity violation in weak interactions. Measurement of the m– magnetic moment.

LEE 1957B Two-component theory of neutrino.

FRIEDMAN 1957 Confirmation of parity nonconservation in weak decays.

LANDAU 1957 Introduction of the CP conservation law in weak interactions and CP parity.

LANDAU 1957B Suggestion of the two-component theory for the neutrino.

LANDE 1957 Confirmation of the existence of the KL.

LEE 1957 Charge conjugation invariance violation in weak interactions.

FRAUENFELDER 1957 Further confirmation of spatial parity nonconservation in beta decays.

LOGUNOV 1957 Rigorous derivation of the dispersion relations for pion photoproduction amplitude.

PAIS 1957 Further proposals for CP invariance.

NISHIJIMA 1957 Introduction of lepton-family-number conservation.

MILEKHIN 1957 Evidence for limited transverse momenta in hadronic showers.

LEE 1957C Further development of the idea of the intermediate vector boson in weak interactions.

GELL-MANN 1957 First review of particle properties data.

YENNIE 1957 Description of the electromagnetic structure of the nucleon by form factors.

BARKAS 1958 First collection of particle physics data in a compact and readily accessible form.

BOLDT 1958B First measurement of the KL - KS mass difference.

PROWSE 1958 First evidence for the anti-L.

FEYNMAN 1958 CVC and symmetry between electromagnetism and weak interaction. D S = D Q for nonleptonic decays of the strange particles.

FAZZINI 1958 First evidence for pe2 decay.

IMPEDUGLIA 1958 Confirmation of pe2 decay.

GOEBEL 1958 Proposed method for extraction of p-p interactions.

CRAWFORD 1958 First evidence of L beta decay.

NORDIN 1958 Confirmation of L beta decay.

PONTECORVO 1958 Proposal for the possibility of neutrino-antineutrino oscillations.

GOLDHABER 1958C First evidence for the negative ne helicity (ne is left handed).

OKUN 1958 Prediction of the existence and some properties of the h and h' particles on the basis of Sakata model. Invention of the D S = D Q selection rule.

POMERANCHUK 1958 Theorem on asymptotic equality of hadron-hadron and antihadron-hadron interaction cross sections.

AGNEW 1958 Confirmation of the existence of the antineutron.

GOLDBERGER 1958 Goldberger-Treiman relations.

SAKURAI 1958 Universal V-A weak interactions.

EISLER 1958 Failure of universal Fermi interactions in the beta decay of hyperons.

MANDELSTAM 1958 Dispersion relation in two variables: the Mandelstam representation.

EDWARDS 1958 Evidence for limited transverse momenta in hadronic jets.

ZELDOVICH 1959 Prediction of the optical activity of atomic media due to possible weak neutral currents. Prediction of the anapole moments of nuclei, due to weak interactions.

FUKUI 1959 Principle of the spark chamber.

MINAKAWA 1959 Confirmation of the existence of hadronic jets in high energy collisions: The average PT of hadrons in jets is limited and almost independent of jet energy.

ALVAREZ 1959 First evidence for the Xo.

GOLDHABER 1959 First observation of an enhancement in the production of like-charge pairs of pions with similar momenta.

PLANO 1959 First direct determination of the parity of the po.

IKEDA 1959 Introduction of SU(3) symmetry for hadrons. Prediction of the existence of the h meson.

LANDAU 1959 Invention of Landau singularities for perturbative amplitudes.

PONTECORVO 1959 Proposed experiments to establish distinguishability of ne and nm. Indication on the feasibility of neutrino beams with accelerators.

CHEW 1959 Method for extraction of pion-pion interactions.

REGGE 1959 Introduction of Regge poles.

GÜRSEY 1960 Non linear sigma model.

BALDIN 1960 First theoretical estimations of dipole polarizabilities of nucleons.

SCHWARTZ 1960 Confirmation of the feasibility of neutrino beams with accelerators.

FRAZER 1960 Prediction of the spin = 1, isospin = 1 resonance in the two-pion system.

BUTTON 1960 First evidence for the anti-So.

ALSTON 1960 First evidence for the S(1385 P13).

KANG-CHANG 1960 First evidence for the anti-S–.

GOLDHABER 1960 Interpretation of the enhancement in the production of like charge pairs of pions with similar momenta as an influence of Bose-Einstein correlations.

REGGE 1960 Introduction of Regge poles.

GOLDANSKY 1960 First measurement of electrical polarizability of the proton.

BOWCOCK 1961 Prediction of the spin = 1, isospin = 1 resonance in the two-pion system.

GOLDSTONE 1961 Prediction of unavoidable massless bosons if global symmetry of the Lagrangian is spontaneously broken.

SALAM 1961 Invention of the gauge principle as basis to construct quantum theories of interacting fundamental fields.

BUTTON 1961 Confirmation of anti-L production.

NAMBU 1961 Nambu-Jona-Lasinio nonlinear model of hadrons.

GLASSER 1961 First conclusive measurements of the po lifetime.

FROISSART 1961 Froissart upper bound on the total cross sections of hadronic collisions.

TERNOV 1961 Prediction of the "radiation self-polarization" effect for electrons moving in magnetic field.

ALSTON 1961B First evidence for the K*(892) resonance.

GRIBOV 1961 Generalization of Regge asymptotics for relativistic scattering amplitudes.

ALSTON 1961E First evidence for the L(1405 S01) resonance.

NE'EMAN 1961 Introduction of the SU(3) octet structure of the known mesons and baryons.

XUONG 1961C Confirmation of the existence of the w meson.

CHEW 1961 Invention of equivalence of elementary hadrons and hadronic resonances on the basis of Regge trajectories. Invention of the Chew-Frautschi plot to classify hadrons. Invention of the vacuum pomeron trajectory.

PEVSNER 1961 First evidence for the h meson. Confirmation of the w meson.

GLASHOW 1961 First introduction of the neutral intermediate boson.

AGS STAFF 1961 AGS (30 GeV) at BNL - the first strong focusing proton synchrotron.

DUNAITSEV 1962 First observation of the p+ beta decay. First direct experimental evidence for the validity of the CVC hypothesis.

TRIPP 1962 Determination of the S parity.

BROWN 1962 First evidence for X– anti-X+ pair production.

CERN 1962 Confirmation of the existence of the anti-X+.

DANBY 1962 First evidence for the nm. Evidence for more than one kind of neutrinos.

GELL-MANN 1962 Introduction of the SU(3) singlet-octet structure of the known mesons and octet-decuplet structure for the baryons. Prediction of the W– hyperon.

PJERROU 1962 First evidence for the X(1530 P13) resonance.

CHRETIEN 1962 Confirmation of the existence and evidence for spin zero of the h meson.

BERTANZA 1962D Confirmation of the existence of the X(1530 P13) resonance. First evidence for the f resonance.

CHINOWSKY 1962 Determination of the spin of the K*(892) resonance to be 1.

FRAUTSCHI 1962 Application of Regge poles to resonances and particles.

SALAM 1962 Conditions for renormalizability of general gauge theories of massive vector mesons.

AMATI 1962 Invention of the multiperipheral model to analyze a few and many body hadronic reactions. Demonstration that multiperipheral model is capable to predict qualitatively the general features of elastic scattering, inelastic particles spectra, and topological cross sections.

GOLDSTONE 1961B Perturbative and general proofs of the Goldstone theorem.

SCHLEIN 1963 Confirmation of the f meson.

CONNOLLY 1963 Firm establishment of the f meson.

CABIBBO 1963 SU(3) and hadronic weak currents. Introduction of the Cabibbo angle; predictions for the leptonic decay rates of hyperons.

DANYSZ 1963 First evidence for a double hypernucleus.

LOGUNOV 1963 Derivation of the relativistic generalization of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation for the two-body problem in quantum field theory.

SOKOLOV 1963 Further investigation of the "radiation self-polarization'' effect for electrons moving in magnetic field.

DOLGOSHEIN 1964 Invention of the streamer chamber.

CHIKOVANI 1964 Another invention of the streamer chamber.

GELL-MANN 1964 Introduction of quarks as fundamental building blocks for hadrons.

ZWEIG 1964 Introduction of aces (quarks) as fundamental building blocks for hadrons. I.

ZWEIG 1964B Introduction of aces (quarks) as fundamental building blocks for hadrons. II.

BJORKEN 1964 Proposal for the existence of a charmed fundamental fermion.

BARNES 1964E Confirmation of the W– hyperon.

KALBFLEISCH 1964 First evidence for the h' meson.

GOLDBERG 1964C Confirmation of the h' meson.

CHRISTENSON 1964 First evidence for CP violation.

GÜRSEY 1964 Introduction of the SU(6) classification of hadrons.

ENGLERT 1964 Example of a field theory with spontaneous symmetry breakdown, no massless goldstone boson, and massive vector bosons.

HIGGS 1964B Higgs mechanism of mass generation for vector gauge fields.

GURALNIK 1964 Example of a field theory with spontaneous symmetry breakdown, no massless goldstone boson, and massive vector bosons.

WOLFENSTEIN 1964 Invention of the superweak theory for CP-violation in weak interactions.

GREENBERG 1964 Introduction of the color quantum number, and colored quarks and gluons.

ABRAMS 1964 Confirmation of the existence of the W– hyperon.

SAKITA 1964 SU(6) classification of hadrons.

SALAM 1964 Lagrangian for the electroweak synthesis, first estimations of the W mass. Salam-Ward version.

BOGOLYUBOV 1965 Introduction of an additional quantum number (the color) to resolve conflict with Fermi statistics. Explanation of the relations between magnetic moments of baryons.

DORFAN 1965D First evidence of the antideuteron.

FITCH 1965B Confirmation of KL ® KS regeneration phenomenon.

ABOV 1965 First evidence of the spatial-parity non-conservation in weak nuclear interactions.

KIRILLOVA 1965 Evidence for large real part of the nuclear scattering amplitude.

LOBASHOV 1966 Confirmation of the spatial parity nonconservation in weak nuclear interactions.

HIGGS 1966 Higgs mechanism of mass generation for vector gauge fields.

GERSHTEIN 1966 First cosmological upper bound on the stable neutrino masses sum.

SOLOVIEV 1966 Invention of the dispersion sum rules for hadronic binary amplitudes.

NAMBU 1966 Invention of the idea of a vector gluon theory for strong interactions.

GREENBERG 1966 Three triplet model for hadrons. Beginnings of the quantum chromodynamics - QCD.

SAKHAROV 1967 First attempt to explain baryonic asymmetry of the observable universe.

BUDKER 1967 Proposal for electron cooling of the proton and antiproton bunches in storage rings.

DORFAN 1967 First evidence for CP violation in KL ® p± m± nm decays.

BENNETT 1967 Evidence for CP violation in semileptonic decays of the KL.

WEINBERG 1967 Lagrangian for the electroweak synthesis, first estimations of the W and Z masses.

KIBBLE 1967 Extension of the Higgs mechanism of mass generation for non-Abelian gauge field theories. Higgs-Kibble mechanism.

FADDEEV 1967 Faddeev-Popov method for construction of Feynman rules for Yang-Mills type of gauge theories.

LOGUNOV 1967 Generalization of the dispersion sum rules to non-decreasing hadronic amplitudes.

LOGUNOV 1967B First derivation of asymptotic bounds on the behavior of the one particle inclusive differential cross sections from general principles.

SALAM 1968 Lagrangian for the electroweak synthesis. Salam-Ward version.

CHARPAK 1968 Invention of multiwire proporional chambers.

ASTVACATUROV 1968 Observation of the f ® e– e+ decay.

BJORKEN 1969 Invention of Bjorken scaling behavior.

BLOOM 1969B First evidence for Bjorken scaling behavior.

BREIDENBACH 1969 Confirmation of Bjorken scaling behavior.

FEYNMAN 1969 Proposal for scaling behavior of the inclusive spectra of produced hadrons. Birth of the partonic picture of hadron collisions. Precise formulation of exclusive and inclusive experiments dichotomy.

BUSHNIN 1969 First conclusive evidence for scale invariance in hadronic inclusive experiments.

BEZNOGIKH 1969 Experimental evidence for the increasing diffraction slope parameter.

BINON 1969 Confirmation of the antimatter production in hadron nucleus collisions.

BJORKEN 1969B Explanation of Bjorken scaling with use of the parton model.

GLASHOW 1970 Introduction of lepton-quark symmetry, proposal of a fourth (charmed) quark.

BINON 1970B Confirmation of scale invariance phenomena in hadronic inclusive experiments.

ANTIPOV 1970 First evidence for anti-3He production.

CHRISTENSON 1970 First observation of the high mass muon pairs in hadron collisions - prototype of the experiments which lead to the discovery of the J /y(1S) (Ting) and ¡(1S) (Herb) as well as "Drell-Yan'' analyses of quark structure functions.

DENISOV 1971F First experimental indication of the rising total hadronic cross sections.

FIRESTONE 1971C First evidence for the anti-W+.

'T HOOFT 1971 Rigorous proofs of renormalizability of the massless Yang-Mills quantum fields theory.

'T HOOFT 1971B Rigorous proof of renormalizability of massive Yang-Mills quantum fields theory with spontaneously broken gauge invariance.

GRIBOV 1972 Invention of Gribov-Lipatov evolution equations for perturbative parton distribution functions in scalar and vector theories. Scaling violation prediction.

MILLER 1972B Firm establishment of Bjorken scaling behavior.

'T HOOFT 1972 Universal regularization and renormalization method for gauge fields theories. I.

'T HOOFT 1972B Universal regularization and renormalization method for gauge fields theories. II.

BALDIN 1973 Evidence for cumulative effect.

KOBAYASHI 1973B Observation that CP violation can be accommodated in the standard electroweak model only if there are at least six quark flavours.

AMALDI 1973E Confirmation of rising total hadronic cross sections.

AMENDOLIA 1973B Further confirmation of rising total hadronic cross sections.

GROSS 1973 Discovery of the "asymptotic freedom'' property of interacting Yang-Mills field theories.

POLITZER 1973 Discovery of the "asymptotic freedom'' property of interacting Yang-Mills field theories.

ALPER 1973G Observation of high transverse momentum hadrons at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings.

BANNER 1973B Observation of high transverse momentum hadrons at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings.

BUESSER 1973 Firm establishment of high transverse momentum hadrons effect at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings.

WEINBERG 1973 Final formulation of QCD and the Standard Model Lagrangian.

FRITZSCH 1973 Invention of the QCD Lagrangian of Yang-Mills type.

GROSS 1973B Final formulation of QCD theory.

MATVEEV 1973 Quark counting rules for asymptotic energy power low behavior of the binary hadronic amplitudes at large fixed angles.

BRODSKY 1973 Quark counting rules for asymptotic energy power low behavior of the binary hadronic amplitudes at large fixed angles.

BENVENUTI 1974F Confirmation of the existence of weak neutral currents.

BACCI 1974 Confirmation of the existence of the J /y(1S).

BUDKER 1976 Evidence for electron cooling.

SEREDNYAKOV 1976 Experimental confirmation of the "radiation self-polarization'' effect for electrons moving in magnetic field.

BLIETSCHAU 1977B Confirmation of the existence of the weak neutral current.

BRANDELIK 1977D First evidence for Ds± and Ds*± strange charmed mesons.

ALTARELLI 1977 Invention of Altarelli-Parisi evolution equations for quark and gluon densities in colliding hadrons.

PERL 1977F Firm establishment of the t lepton properties.

INNES 1977 Evidence for the ¡(2S) resonance.

DARDEN 1978 Another confirmation of the ¡(1S) resonance.

DARDEN 1978B Another confirmation of the ¡(2S) resonance.

BARBER 1979F First evidence for the gluon jet in e+ e– ® 3jet annihilations.

BRANDELIK 1979H Confirmation of the production of gluon jets.

BERGER 1979C Another confirmation of the production of gluon jets.

BARTEL 1980D Confirmation of gluon jets.

BOHRINGER 1980B Another confirmation of the ¡(3S).

CALICCHIO 1980 First evidence for the Sc(2455)+.

ANDREWS 1980B Evidence for the ¡(4S).

FINOCCHIARO 1980 Another evidence for the ¡(4S).

BEBEK 1981 First evidence for the B meson.

BASILE 1981I First indication of the existence of the bottom baryon Lb.

CHADWICK 1981 Further evidence of the B-flavored meson.

BIAGI 1983C First evidence for the Xc(2460)+.

BANNER 1983B First evidence for the production of the charged intermediate bosons W+ and W–.

AUBERT 1983 Evidence for difference between structure functions of bound and free nucleons - EMC effect.

ARNISON 1983D First evidence for the neutral intermediate boson Zo.

BODEK 1983 Confirmation for difference between structure functions of bound and free nucleons - EMC effect.

ARNISON 1984C Confirmation of W+ and W– production. First observation of W± ® m±n decays.

ARTAMONOV 1984B Implementation of the resonance depolarization method of the beams energy calibration to the high precision measurements of heavy e+ e– resonances.

ARNISON 1984G Confirmation of Zo boson production. Observation of Zo ® m+ m– decay.

BIAGI 1985C First evidence for the Wc.

ARNISON 1985D Firm establishment of the properties of W+, W– and Zo bosons.

ALBAJAR 1987C First indication of Bs- anti-Bs mixing.

ANSARI 1987E Firm establishment of properties of the W+, W–, and Zo bosons.

ALBRECHT 1987P First evidence for the Bo- anti-Bo mixing.

HIRATA 1987C First observation of the neutrino burst from supernova SN1987A.

BIONTA 1987C First observation of the neutrino burst from supernova SN1987A. Birth of neutrino astronomy.

VAN DYCK 1987 High precision measurements of electron and positron g-2 factors. High precision test of QED and CPT symmetry.

ASHMAN 1988B Evidence for complex spin structure of the proton, "proton spin crisis''.

BAND 1988 Confirmation of Bo- anti-Bo mixing.

AVERY 1989C First evidence for the Xc(2460)o and anti-Xc(2460)o.

ARTUSO 1989C Confirmation of Bo- anti-Bo mixing.

ABRAMS 1989B First evidence that the number of light neutrinos = 3. MARK-II Collaboration.

ADEVA 1990R Another confirmation of Bs- anti-Bs mixing.

DECAMP 1991D Further confirmation of Bs- anti-Bs mixing.

ADEVA 1991D Confirmation of the number of light neutrinos = 3. L3 Collaboration.

ALEXANDER 1991C Confirmation of the number of light neutrinos = 3. OPAL Collaboration.

ABREU 1991B Confirmation of the number of light neutrinos = 3. DELPHI Collaboration.

ABE 1995 Observation of the top quark. CDF Collaboration.

ABACHI 1995G Observation of the top quark. D0 Collaboration.