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The following is an interesting, unclassified report on the future of the computer, from the archives at the National Security Agency. "Time Is . Time Was· Time Is Past Computers for Intelligence" by Howard Campaigne offers an interesting look at what the future might hold for computation from an analyst who worked for what would become one of the U.S. government premier institutions for implementing new ideas in computation. It ends with a surprising six-page bibliography ("Bibliography on Extending Scope of Computers") which is the same length as this entire short paper.
"If a thinking machine can be built, then it must be done; it is a matter of self-respect. Just as a man must be put on the moon, just as Mount Everest had to be climbed, just as the poles had to be visited, just as a flying machine had to be made no matter what the arguments against it, so a machine must be made which can think."
"I must comment on a statement I have seen that soon the chess champion will be a machine! This is fatuous. Bicycles are not used in the Olympic footraces; if they were, a cyclist would be world champion. When the rules of chess are amended to prohibit mechanical aids, that will be a clue that one of our subgoals is being approached."
The entire article can be read here.
BIBLIOGRAPHY ON EXTENDING SCOPE OF COMPUTERS
S. Amarel, "On the Automatic Formation of a Computer Program whichRepresents
a Theory," Self Organizing Systems, Spartan Books, Washington,
D. C., 1962.
A. M. Andrew, "Learning Machines," Paper 3-6, Symposium on the Mechanization
of Thought Processes, Teddington, England, November 1958.
James B. Angell, The Need and MeUM for Self-Repairing Circuits, Technical
Report No. 4654-2, USAF Contract AF33(616)-7726, Stanford Electronics
Paul Armer, "Attitudes toward Intelligent Machines," Datamation, Vol. 9, No.
3, March 1963, pp. 34-38.
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30 September 1960. (Extensive bibliography.)
J. A. Aseltine, A. R. Mancini, and C. W. Sarture, "Impulse-Response SelfOptimization
as Compared with Other Criteria for Adaptive Systems," Presented
at 4th Annual Instruments and Regulators Conference on Automatic
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W. R. Ashby, Design for a Brain, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, N. Y.,
1952. (Chapman and Hall, London.)
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"Computers and Decision Making," New Scientist, 7, 746, 24 March
'---, "Design for an Intelligence Amplifier," Automata Studies, Annals of
MatJu!matical Studies, No. 34, Princeton University Press, 1956, p, 215.
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Systems," Technical Report No.1, Burden Neurological Institute, Bristol,
M. L. Babcock et al, "Some Principles of Preorganization in Self-Organizing
Systems," Electrical Engineering Research Laboratory Report No.2, University
of Illinois, 24 June 1960.
R. B. Banerji, "Computer Programs for the Generation of New Concepts from
Old Ones," Case Institute of Technology. (Preprint)
H. B. Barlow, "Sensory Mechanisms, the Reduction of Redundancy, and Intelligence,"
Symposium on the Mechanization of Thought Processes, Teddington,
England, November 1958.
B. L. Basore and W. D. Wood, A Model for Communication with Learning, Dikewood
Corporation TN-I004-2, 31 May 1960.
A. Bernstein et al, "A Chess Playing Program for the IBM 704," Proc. WJCC,
1958, pp. 157-159.
A. Bernstein and M. deY. Roberts, "Computer vs. Chess Player," Scientific
American, 198, June 1958, pp. 96-98.
"Bibliography on Biological and Artificial Intelligence," Jet Propulsion Laboratory,
California Technical Literature Search No. 254 and Supplement.
W. W. Bledsoe and I. Browning, "Pattern Recognit.ion and Reading By Machine,"
EJCC, Boston, December 1959, pp. 225 232.
H. R. Bush and F. Mosteller, Stochastic Models for Learning, John Wiley &
Sons, Inc., New York, N. Y., 1955.
H. H. CAMPAIGNE UNCLASSIFIED
Silvio Ceccato, "La Machine qui Parle et qui Pense," Congress International
de Cybernetique, Namur, 1956.
C. K. Chow, "An Optimum Character Recognition System using Decision
Functions," IRE Trans. on Electronic Computers, Vol. EC6, December 1957,
W. A. Clark and B. G. Farley, "Generalization of Pattern Recognition in a
Self-Organizing System," Proc. WJCC, 1955, pp. 86-91.
W. E. Dickinson, "A Character-Recognition Study," IBM Research and Development,
Vol. 4, July 1960, pp. 335-348.
T. L. Dimond, "Devices for Reading Handwritten Characters," Proc. EdCC,
Washington, D. C., December 1957, pp, 232-237.
G. P. Dineen, "Programming Pattern Recognition," Proc. WJCC, March 1955,
W. Doyle, "Recognition of Sloppy Hand-printed Characters," Lincoln Laboratory
Group Report 54-12, December 1959.
T. G. Evans, A Heuristic Program for Solving Geometric Analogy Problems, unpublished
Doctoral Disseration, MIT, 1963. (Also Spring ,ICC, 1964, pp.
B. G. Farley and W. A. Clarke, "Simulation of Self-Organizing Systems by
Digital Computers," Transactions on Information Theory, IRE PGIT, 4,
September 1954, pp. 76-84.
Edward A. Feigenbaum, "Artificial Intelligence Research," IEEE Transactions,
Vol. 11'-9, No.4, October 1963, pp. 248-253.
E. Feigenbaum and J. Fedman, Eds., Computers and Thought, McGraw-Hili..
N. Y., 1963.
Edward A. Feigenbaum and Gerbert A. Simon, "Forgetting in an Association
Memory," RAND p-2311, 24 May 1961.
I. Flore and L. Grey, "Optimization of Reference Signals for Character Recognition
Systems," IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers, Vol. EC-9, March
L. J. Fogel, ''Toward Inductive Inference Automata," Proc. 1962 International
Conference of Information Processing, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1963, pp.
R. M. Friedberg, "A Learning Machine: Part I," IBM Journal of R&D, 2,
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R. M. Friedberg, B. Dunham and J. H. North, "A Learning Machine: Part II"
IBM Journal of R&D, 3, July 1959, pp. 282-287.
H. Gelernter and N. Rochester, "Intelligent Behavior in Problem-Solving Machines,"
IBM Journal of R&D, 2, 1958, pp. 336-345.
H. L. Gelernter, "Realization of a Geometry Theorem-Proving Machine,"
Proc. Int. Conf. on Information Processing, Paris, 1959.
----, "Theorem Proving by Machine," IBM IR--00124, August 1957.
A. Gill, "Minimum-scan Pattern Recognition," IRE Transactions on Information
Theory, Vol. 11'-5, June 1959, pp, 52-58.
----, "Possibilities for the Practical Utilization of Learning Processes,"
Paper 4-10, Symposium on Mechanization of Thought Processes, Teddington,
P. C. Gilmore, "A program for the production of proofs for theorems derivable
within the first. order predicate calculus from axioms," Unesco, NS, ICIP,
1.6.14, International Conf. on Information Processing, Paris, June 1959.
----, "A Proof Method for Quantification Theory," IBM Journal of R&D,
4, 1960, Pp. 28-35.
JI. T. Glantz, "On the Recognition of Information with a Digital Computer,"
JACM, Vol. 4, April 1957; pp. 178-189.
B. Gold, "Machine Recognition of Hand-sent Morse Code," IRE TralUlactions
on Information Theory, Vol. IT-5, March 1959, pp, 17-24.
I. J. Good, "The SUbassembly Theory of Memory and Meaning and its Relevance
to the Economical Construction of an Ultra-Intelligent Machine,"
S. Gom, "On the Mechanical Simulation of Learning and Habit Forming,"
Information and Control, 2, September 1959, pp, 226·-259.
B. F. Green, A. Wolf, C. Chomsky, and K. Langhevy, "Baseball: an Automatic
Question Answerer," Proc. WJCC 1961, pp. 219-224. ,
P. H. Greene, "An Approach to Computers that Perceive, Learn and Reason,"
Proc. WJCC, 1959, PP. 181-186.
----, "A Suggested Model for Information Representation in a Computer
that Perceives, Learns and Reasons," Proc. WJCC, 1960, pp. 151-164.
-----, "Networks for Pattern Perception," Proc. National Eiectronics Conf.,
Vol. 15, October 1959, pp. 357-369.
E. C. Greenian and Y. M. Hill, "Considerations in the Design of Character
Recognition Devices," IRE National Convention Record, 1957, pp. 119-126.
E. C. Greenian et al, "Design of Logic for Recognition of Printed Characters
by Simulation," IBM Journal of R&D, Vol 1, January 1957, pp. 8-18.
R. L. Grimsdale et ol, "A System for the Automatic Recognition of Patterns,"
Proc, lEE, 106, Pt. B, March 1959.
Fred Gruneberger, "Benchmarks in Artificial Intelligence," Datamation, October
1962, pp. 33-35.
George L. Haller, "Our State of Mind in 2012 A. D." Proc. of IRE, Vol. 50,
No.5, May 1962, pp. 624--627.
R. W. Hamming, "Intellectual Implication of the Computer Revolution," Bell
L. D. Hamon, "A Line-drawing Pattern-recognizer" Proc. WJCC, San Francisco,
Calif., May 1960, pp. 351-364.
C. C. Heasly, "Some Communication Aspects of Character-sensing Systems,"
Proc. WJCC, San Francisco, Calif., May 1959, pp. 176-180.
W. H. HighIeyman and L. A. Kamentsky, "Comments on a Character Recognition
Method of Bledsoe and Browning," IRE Transactio7lS on Electronic
Computers, EC9, June 1960, p. 263.
M. E. Hoff, Jr., "Learning Phenomena in Networks of Adaptive Switching.
Circuits," Technical Report No. SEL--62-Q90, Stanford Electronics Labs.,
Aiko M. Hormann, "Programs for Machine Learning," TM-669/000/01 SDC
29 May 1962.
E. B. Hunt, Concept Formation: An Information Processing Problem, John Wiley
& Sons, Inc., New York, 1962.
F. H. Jean, Generation and Testing of Hypotheses, Dikewood Corporation, FR1021,
Contract AF30(602)-2514 for Rome Air Development Center, 29 May
H. H. CAMPAIGNE UNCLASSIFIED
L. A. Kamentsky, "Pattern and Character Recognition Systems-Picture Processing
by Nets of Neuron-like Elements," Proc. WJCC, San Francisco, May
1959, pp. 304-309.
J. L. Kelly, Jr., and O. G. Selfridge, "Sophistication in Computers: a Disagreement,"
IRE Transactions on Information Theory, IT-B, 1962, pp. 7B-80.
T. Killren, R. L. Grimsdale, and F. H. Summer, Experiments in Machine Learning
and Thinking, UNESCO/NS/ICIPJ.6.15, 1959.
R. A. Kirsch, C. Ray, L. Cahn, and G. H. Urban, "Experiments in Processing
Pictorial Information with a Digital Computer," Proc. EJCC, Proc. IRE.,
December 1957, pp, 221-229.
J. Kister, P. Stein, S. Ulsm, W. Welden and M. WeUs, "Experiments in Chess,"
JACM., April 1957.
S. Kuroda, "An Investigation on the Logical Structure of Mathematics (XIII)A
Method of Programming of Proofs in Mathematics for Electronic Computing
Machines," Nagoya MathematicalJournal, 16, 1960, pp. 145-203.
P. A. Lachenbruch, A. J. Slevenske and A. C. Marchese, "Artificial Intelligence-
A Summary of Current Research & Development," American Institute
for Research, Los Angeles, No. AIR-C63-2/62-TR, 1962.
J. C. R. Licklider, "Interactions Between Artificial Intelligence, Military Intelligence
and Command and Control," preprints 1st Congress of the Information
System Sciences, MITRE Corp., Bedford, Mass., 1962.
D. M. MacKay, "Mindlike Behaviour in Artefacts," British Journal for OM
Philosophy of Science, II, 1951, pp. 105-121.
Carl Maltz, "A Measure of the Significance of Pattern Features for Use as an
Aid in the Design of Recognition Systems," Report 62~B, University of
California, Los Angeles, December 1962.
T. Marrill and D. M. Green, "Statistical Recognition Functions and the Design
of Pattern Recognizers," IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers,
Vol. EC-9, No.4, December 1960, pp. 472-477.
Henrik H. Martens, "Two Notes on Machine 'Learning,''' Information and
Control, 2, 1959, pp. 364-379.
R. L. Mattson, "A Self-organizing Binary System," Proc. EJCC, 1959, pp.
,J. McCarthy, "Programs with Common Sense," Mechanisation of Thought
Processes, Vol. I, National Physical Laboratory Symposium No. 10, Her
Majesty's Stationery Office, 1959, pp. 75-84.
Warren S. McCuloch. "The Brain as a Computing Machine," Electronics Engineering,
69, 1949, p. 492.
J. Mesyar, "Switching Systems as Mechanized Brains," Bell Telephone Laboratories
Record, February 1953.
Margaret Milligan, "Machines are Smarter Than I Am!" Data Processing
Digest. October 1959.
O. N. Minot, "Automatic Devices for Recognition of Visible Two-dimensional
Patterns; A Survey of the Field," US Naval Electronics Laboratory Technical
Memo. 364, San Diego. June 1959.
M. L. Minsky, Appendix to "Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence," preprinta,
1st Congress of the Information System Sciences, MITRE, 1962.
----, "A Selected Descriptor-Indexed Bibliography to the Literature on
Artificial Intelligence," IRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics,
Vol. HFE-2, No. I, March 1961, pp, 39-56.
----, "Heuristic Aspects of the Artificial Intelligence Problem," Lincoln
Laboratory Report 34-55, December 1956; ASTIA Doc. No. 236885, December
----, "Learning Systems and Artificial Intelligence." Applications of Logic
to Aduanced Digital Computer Programming, University of Michigan, Coil. of
Eng., Summer Session, 1957.
----, "Some Methoda of Artificial Intelligence and Heuristic Programming,"
Proc. Symposium on the Mechanization of Tlwught Processes, NPL Teddington,
-...----, "Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence," Proc. IRE 49, January 1961,
----, and O. G. Selfridge, "Learning in Random Nets," Fourth London
Symposium on Information Theory.
E. F. Moore, "On the Shortest Path Through a Maze," Proc. International
Symposium on the Theory of Switching, Harvard, 1959.
G. A. Morton, "Machines with Imagination," Proc. IRE, Vol. 50, No.5, May
1962, p. 611.
O. H. Mowrer, Learning Theory and the Symbolic Processes, John Wiley & Sons,
Inc., New York, 1960.
Allen Newell, "Lectures on Heuristic Programs," Engineering Summer Conferences,
Summer Series, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1957.
----, "On Programming a Highly Parallel Machine to be an Intelligent
Technician," Proc. WJCC, Paper 9.3, May 1960, pp. 267-282.
----, "The Chess Machine; An Example of Dealing with a Complex Task
by Adaptation," Proc. WJCC, March 1955.
lind H. A. Simon, "A Program that Simulates Human Thought,"
Lemende Automaten, H. Billing, Ed., Oldenbourg, Munich, 1961.
---- and H. A. Simon, "Computer Simulation of Human Thought," Science,
Vol. 134, 22 December 1961, p. 2011.
----, J. C. Shaw, and H. A. Simon, "A General Problem-solving Program
for a Computer," Computers and Automation, 8, 1959, pp. 10-17.
----, J. C. Shaw, and H. A. Simon, "A Variety of Intelligent Learning
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Cameron (Eds.), Pergamon Press, London, 1960, pp. 153-189.
----, J. C. Shaw, and H. A. Simon, "Chess-Playing Programs and the
Problem of Complexity," IBM Journal of R&D., 2, October 1958, pp. 320-335.
----, J. C. Shaw, and H. A. Simon, "Problem Solving in Humans and Computers,"
RAND Corp., P-987, 7 December 1956.
----., J. C. Shaw, and H. A. Simon, Report on a General Problem-Soloing
Program, UNESCO/NS/ICIP/1.6.8; Proc. International Conference on Information
Processing, Paris, pp. 256-264.
J. D. North, "The National Behavior of Mechanically Extended Man" Boulton
Paul Aircraft Ltd., Wolverhampton, England, September 1954.
A. G. Oettinger, "Programming a Digital Computer to Learn," Phil Mag.,
Vol. 43, December 1952, pp. 1243-1263.
----, "Simple Learning by a Digital Computer," IRE Proceedings of the
Association for Computing Machinery, Toronto, Ontario, September 1952.
Proceedings of the Symposium on Mechanization of Thought Processes, H. M. Stationery
Office, London, 1959.
H. H. CAMPAIGNE UNCLASSIFIED
W. C. Ridgway III, "An Adaptive Logic System with Generalizing Properties,"
Technical Report No. SEL-62-G40, Stanford Electronics Labs., April, 1962.
P. 1. Richards, "On Game Learning Machines," Scientific Monthly, 74, 4, 1952,
L. G. Roberts, "Pattern Recognition with an Adaptive Network," IRE International
Convention Record, Pt. 2., 1960, pp. 66-70.
A. Samuel, "Appendix: Game of Checkers Played by Mr. R. W. Nealy vs Samuel
Checker Playing Program," Computers and Thought, Feigenbaum & Feldman,
----, "Some Studies in Machine Learning, Using the Game of Checkers,"
IBM Journal of R&D, No.3, July 1959, pp. 210-229.
O. G. Selfridge, "Pandemonium: A Paradigm for Learning," Papers 3-4, Symposium
on the Mechanization of Thought Processes, Teddington, England,
----, "Pattern Recognition and Modem Computers," Proc. WJCC, March
1955, pp. 91-93.
----, and G. P. Dinneen, "Programming Pattern Recognition," Proc.
W.JCC, March 1955.
----, and U. Neisser, "Pattern Recognition by Machine," Scientific American,
203, August 1960, pp. 6~8.
C. E. Shannon, "Game-playing Machines," Journal of the Franklin Institute,
206, December 1955, pp. 447-453.
----, "Programming a Computer to Play Chess," Phil. Mag. 7, 41, March
1950, pp, 256-275.
H. Sherman, "A Quasi-Topological Method for Recognition of Line Patterns,"
Unesco, NS, 1C1P, H. L. 5, International Conference on Information Procssaing,
Paris, June 1959.
R. F. Simmons, "Syntex: Toward Computer Synthesis of Human Language
Behavior," Computer Applications in the Behavioral Sciences, H. Barko Ed.,
Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 1962.
Herbert A. Simon, "The Heuristic Compiler," RAND, Santa Monica, RM3588
----, "Prediction and Hindsight as Confirmatory Evidence," Phil. of
Science, 22, 1953, pp. 227-230.
----, and Allen Newell, "Computer Simulation of Human Thinking and
Problem Solving," Datamation, 7 June 1961, pp. 18-20.
N. Sluckin, Minds and Machines, Penguin.
R. J. Solomonoff, "An Inductive Interference Machine," IRE National Convention
Record, Pt. 2, 5, 1957, pp. 56--62.
----, "A Preliminary Report on a General Theory of Inductive Inference,"
Zator Technical Bulletin, v-131, ZTB-138, February 1960.
----, "The Mechanization of Linguistic Learning," Zator Technical Bulletin,
No. 125, September 1958.
S. D. Steams, "A Method for the Design of Pattern Recognition Logic," IRE
Transactions on Electronic Computers, Vol. EC-9, March"1960, pp. 48-53.
Mary Elizabeth Stevens, Abstract Shape Recognition by Machine, AFIPS 20,
Proc. EJCC, 1961, Washington, D. C.
Donald N. Streeter, and Kumpati S. Narenda, A Self-organizing Control System
Bused on Correlation Techniques and Selective Reinforcement, Technical Report
No. 359, Craft Laboratory, Harvard, ONR Contract Nonr1866(16J, NR372-
012, 20 July 1962.
D. L. Szekely, "On Basic Aspects of the Concept Transforming Machine,"
Cybernetica, Vol. 4, No.2, 1961.
M. Taube, Computers and Common Sense, The Myth of Thinking Machines,
Columbia University Press, 1961.
W. K. Taylor, "Pattern Recognition by Means of Automatic Analog Equipment,"
Proc. lEE, Vol. 106, Pt. B, March 1959.
----, "Electrical Simulation of Some Nervous System Functional Activities,"
Information Theory, C. Cherry Ed., Butterworth Scientific Publications,
W. H. Thorpe, "The Concepts of Learning and their Relation to Those of
Instinct," Symposium of the Society for Experimental Biology, IV, p. 387.
J. H. Troll, "The Thinking of Men and Machines," Atlantic Monthly, July 1954.
A. M. Turing, "Can a Machine Think," World of Mathematics, James R. Newman,
Ed., Simon and Schuster, 1956, Vol. 4, p. 2109.
----, "Computing Machinery and Intelligence," World of Mathematics
Vol. 4, p. 2099; Mind, 59, October 1950, pp. 433-460.
L. Uhr, "Latest Methods for Conception and Education of Intelligent Machines,"
Behaoioral Science, 4, 1959, pp, 248-251.
----, "Intelligence in Computing Machines; the Psychology of Perception
in People and in Machines," Behaoioral Science, 5, 1960, pp, 177-182.
S. H. Unger, "Pattern Detection and Recognition," Proc. IRE, 47, October 1959,
A. M. Uttley, "Imitation of Pattern Recognition and Trial-and-error Learning
in a Conditional Probability Computer," Rev. Mod. Pltys., Vol. 31, April
1959, pp. 546-548.
B. Widrow and M. E. Hoft', "Adaptive Switching Circuits," Standard Electronics
Laboratory, Stanford, Technical Report No. 15~3-1, June 1960.
J. D. Williams, "Toward Intelligent Machines," RAND Corporation P-2170,
29 December 1960.
M. T. Yovitts and S. Cameron, Self-Organizing Systems, Pergamon Press, New